A Study of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) with Japanese Subjects
The purpose of the study was to identify common themes on the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) for Japanese subjects. In addition, Japanese TAT themes were compared with American TAT themes (Stein, 1981) for any significant differences. It was hypothesized that significant differences in narrative themes would exist between Japanese and American subjects. The subjects included sixty male and female college students attending courses in Tokyo, Japan. Subjects were enrolled in college courses during the administration of the test and ranged in age from 18 to 27 years of age. All the participants were fluent in English--allowing them to make responses in that language; therefore, eliminating the errors inherent in translation. Japanese subjects were then compared with Morris I. Stein's original study of eighty American males conducted in 1981. Ten of the original Murray TAT cards were used: 1, 2, 3BM, 4, 6BM, 7GF, 8BM, 10, 11 and 14. Japanese narratives were then scored using five variables for each of the ten cards: hero gender, the incidence of death, need for achievement, dominant emotional tone and the outcome of the story. In conclusion, common TAT themes for Japanese subjects were identified for all ten of the cards that were administered. Cards 1, 2, 4, 8BM, 10, 11 and 14 shared many of the same themes for Japanese and American subjects. On the other hand, cards 3BM, 6BM and 7GF varied in theme content for Japanese and American subjects. These findings will help determine the validity and reliability of the TAT as an assessment tool for Japanese subjects, and open the door for future studies of Asian populations in the United States as this population is underrepresented in much of the research and literature of today.
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African Americans aggression American narratives American subjects American Themes Apperception Test TAT Asian Americans Bellak Card 3BM Card 7 Card Card 8 Card Card 9 cicada Comparison of Japanese counseling counselor cross-cultural cultural differences Cumulative Percent ________________________________________________________________________ Dependent Variable Achievement Dependent Variable Dominant Dependent Variable Narrative described the dominant described the hero Description of TAT DeVos differences in theme Dominant Emotional Tone Example for Card Frequency Percent Valid Happy Conclusion Hispanic individual Japan Japanese and American Japanese clients Japanese culture Japanese narratives Japanese subjects described Japanese Subjects Table Main TAT Themes mental health narratives included original Murray parents patients Percent Cumulative Percent Percent Valid Percent picture projective test Psychology psychotherapy relationship Rorschach significant differences sixty Japanese subjects sixty narratives Stein Stein’s Main TAT stories TAT Card 14 TAT Card 6BM Thematic Apperception Test Themes for American Themes for Japanese Valid Percent Cumulative Variable Dominant Emotional Variable Narrative Outcome