A Treatise on Surveying: Comprising the Theory and the Practice

Front Cover
D. Appleton, 1896 - Surveying
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Contents

Surveyors transit
187
The telescope
188
The crosshairs
190
Instrumental parallax
192
Supports
193
The graduated circle
194
Movements
195
Parallel plates
196
Watchtelescope
197
The diagonal eyepiece
198
The theodolite
200
Definitions
201
General rules
202
Retrograde verniers
203
Illustration
204
Circle divided into degrees
205
Circle divided to 30
206
Circle divided to 20
208
Circle divided to 15
210
317 Arc of excess
211
Compassvernier
212
Object and necessity
213
First adjustment
214
Second adjustment
215
Third adjustment
218
Centering the eyepiece
219
Centering the objectglass 21S 327 Fourth adjustment
221
To measure an angle
222
Reduction of high and low objects
223
To repeat an angle
224
Angles of deflection
225
Traversing
226
Use of compass
227
Farmsurveying
228
With the engineers chain
230
To establish grades
232
On sloping ground
233
General directions
235
Formulas
238
General directions
239
850353 To graduate rods
240
Obstacles to Surveying
242
Parallels
244
General method
245
When the line is inaccessible
246
By a random line
247
By latitudes and departures
248
By similar triangles
249
ARTICLE PAGE 874 By triangulation
250
When one point can not be seen from the other
251
382388 Problems
252
General statement
257
When length and bearing of a side are wanting
258
When they are not adjacent
259
When the lengths of two adjacent sides are wanting
260
When they are not adjacent
261
When the bearing of two adjacent sides are wanting
262
Laying out and dividing up Land
263
To lay out rectangles
264
To lay out circles
265
Land sold for taxes
266
Its object
267
To part off a trapezoid
268
To part off a triangle
269
To part off a quadrilateral
270
To part o2f a triangle
271
To part off any figure
272
To part off a quadrilateral
273
To part off a triangle
275
To part off a quadrilateral
278
To part off a triangle
280
Methods
281
Straightening crooked fences
282
Arrangement
283
By lines perpendicular to a side
284
448449 Graphical solutions
297
By lines running in any direction
298
Surveying United States Public Lands
301
Difficulty 802
306
Exceptional methods 808
311
Fieldbooks
315
Use of instrument 819
319
Description of instrument
321
Order
324
Second adjustment 824
325
Refraction
326
To determine latitude 827
328
Solar attachment 828
330
483 Accuracy of solar apparatus
333
A great circle
334
By offsets from a tangent 834
336
Tangent at threemile point 386
340
Convergence of meridians
342
Resurveys
343
Introduction 343 I 493 Legal rules for resurveys
344
LEVELING
352
General principles
354
Methods of operation 854
355
Refraction
356
Reflecting levels
357
Continuous waterlevels 859
359
The bubbletube
360
Blocklevel
361
Level with sights
362
Gurleys handlevel
363
The telescopic level
364
The telescope
365
The crosshairs 865
367
General statement
369
Second adjustment
370
Third adjustment
371
The pegmethod of adjustment
372
Egaults level
373
Gravatts level
374
Rods
375
Targets
376
Vernier
377
The Boston rod
378
Field routine
380
Fieldnotes
382
Second form of fieldbook
385
Third form of fieldbook
387
Best length of sights
388
ARTICLE PAGE 544 Benchmarks
389
Limits of precision
390
Steep slopes
392
When the rod is too low
393
When the rod is too near
394
A swamp 894
395
A house
396
Reciprocal leveling
397
Difficulties
398
To locate a levelline
399
To run a gradeline
400
Appendix A Synopsis of Plane Trigonometry
401
Trigonometrical lines
402
The lines as ratios
403
Their changes of sign
404
Their mutual relations
405
Two arcs
406
The tables
407
Obliqueangled triangles
408
Appendix B Transversals Harmonic Division etc
410
ARTICLE PAGE ARTICLE
412
Table of chords
8
Logarithms of numbers
1
249
3
280
54
288
84
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