A Twenty-First Century U.S. Water Policy
OUP USA, Aug 23, 2012 - Business & Economics - 334 pages
As is becoming clearer and clearer, pressures on water resources in the United States are growing, with no foreseeable end in sight. Yet these pressures are not due to a national water scarcity. While the Southwest faces the problems of draught, a rising population, and over-allocation of resources, the Northeast and Northern Plains must deal with increasingly wet weather and flooding. The greatest challenges that the United States faces with regard to water are regional disparities in availability, a changing climate, worsening water quality, and, increasingly, controversies over management strategies and policies. While many countries have adopted federal approaches to water management, the United States has no cohesive national water policy. In fact, the oversight of current water policy is shared by over sixty different agencies,and the last national water assessment undertaken in the United States occurred over forty years ago. The lack of coordinated oversight not only renders national policymakers unable to make informed analyses of water quality standards and availability, it also results in large gaps of understanding regarding variability of water resources and how to most efficiently and effectively manage and preserve those resources. A Twenty-First Century U.S. Water Policy culls together independent analysis of freshwater availability; water usage in agriculture, municipalities, tribal settlements, and energy production; exisiting legal frameworks; environmental justice movements; and data on water quality and climate change. The result is a visionary proposal for a coherent and critically needed federal water policy.
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Freshwater Availability and Use
2 Legal and Institutional Framework of Water Management Juliet ChristianSmith and Lucy Allen
3 Water and Environmental Justice
4 Tribes and Water
5 Water Quality
6 Protecting Freshwater Ecosystems
7 Municipal Water Use
8 Water and Agriculture
9 Water and Energy
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agricultural aquatic aquatic ecosystems aquifers areas Assessment beneﬁts biofuels challenges Clean Water Act climate change communities and communities communities of color conﬂicts Congress conservation contaminants costs crop dams deﬁned Department drinking water drought economic ecosystems efﬁciency efforts Environmental Justice Environmental Protection Agency EPAct federal agencies federal government ﬁgure ﬁrst ﬁsh ﬂood freshwater funding gallons Geological Survey Gleick greenhouse gas groundwater implement improve increase infrastructure instream ﬂows integrated irrigation land low-income communities million monitoring National Water needs Ofﬁce Oﬁce ofthe ofwater Ogallala Aquifer Paciﬁc percent planning pollution production programs Reclamation reduce regions regulations Report requirements Research runoff Safe Drinking Water Service signiﬁcant soft path sources speciﬁc standards strategies stream gauges surface water technologies tribal water tribes United USACE USAID USGS VI/ater Washington water and wastewater water management water quality water resources water rights water supply water systems water withdrawals water—quality water—related