A Workbook for Arguments: A Complete Course in Critical Thinking

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Hackett Publishing, Nov 1, 2011 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 500 pages
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A Workbook for Arguments builds on Anthony Weston's Rulebook for Arguments to offer a complete textbook for a course in critical thinking or informal logic. The Workbook contains the entire text of the fourth edition of the Rulebook, while supplementing this core text with extensive further explanations and exercises: Homework exercises adapted from a wide range of actual arguments from newspapers, philosophical texts, literature, movies, YouTube videos, and other sources; Practical advice to help students succeed when applying the Rulebook's rules to the examples in the homework exercises; Suggestions for further practice, outlining activities that students can do by themselves or with classmates to improve their critical thinking skills, or pointing them to online resources to do the same; Detailed instructions for in-class activities and take-home assignments designed to engage students in critical thinking; An appendix on mapping arguments, giving students a solid introduction to this vital skill in evaluating or constructing complex and multi-step arguments; Model answers to odd-numbered problems, including commentaries on the strengths and weaknesses of selected sample answers and further discussion of some of the substantive intellectual, philosophical, philosophical, or ethical issues they raise.
 

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Contents

Reinterpreting and revising fallacious arguments part 2
239
Two deductive fallacies
242
Constructing fallacious arguments
246
Definitions
250
Making definitions more precise
252
When terms are contested work from the clear cases
256
Starting from clear cases
257
Definitions dont replace arguments
260

Diagnosing loaded language
26
Use consistent terms
31
Evaluating letters to the editor
32
Generalizations
38
Use more than one example
39
Use representative examples
42
Improving biased samples
43
Background rates may be crucial
48
Identifying relevant background rates
49
Statistics need a critical eye
54
Evaluating simple arguments that use numbers
55
Consider counterexamples
60
Finding counterexamples
61
Evaluating arguments for generalizations
63
Arguing for and against generalizations
69
Arguments by Analogy
72
Analogies require relevantly similar examples
73
Identifying important similarities
75
Evaluating arguments by analogy
78
Constructing arguments by analogy
83
Sources
87
Seek informed sources
88
Seek impartial sources
90
Identifying biased sources
91
Crosscheck sources
94
Use the Web with care
96
Evaluating arguments that use sources
97
Using sources in arguments
103
Arguments about Causes
106
Correlations may have alternative explanations
107
Brainstorming explanations for correlations
108
Work toward the most likely explanation
111
Identifying the most likely explanation
113
Expect complexity
114
Evaluating arguments about causes
115
Constructing arguments about causes
121
Deductive Arguments
124
Modus ponens
125
Hypothetical syllogism
126
Rule 25 Disjunctive syllogism
127
Dilemma
128
Identifying deductive argument forms
129
Identifying deductive arguments in more complex passages
133
Drawing conclusions with deductive arguments
138
Reductio ad absurdum
141
Working with reductio ad absurdum
142
Deductive arguments in several steps
148
Identifying deductive arguments in several steps
150
Extended Arguments
156
Identifying possible positions
157
Exploring issues of your choice
159
Spell out basic ideas as arguments
160
Sketching arguments for and against positions
162
Sketching arguments about your own topic
164
Defend basic premises with arguments of their own
165
Developing arguments in more detail
167
Developing your own arguments
171
Consider objections
172
Working out objections
173
Working out objections to your own arguments
174
Consider alternatives
175
Brainstorming alternatives
176
Considering alternatives to your own conclusions
180
Argumentative Essays
182
Make a definite claim or proposal
188
Your argument is your outline
190
Writing out your arguments
192
detail objections and meet them
194
Detailing and meeting objections
195
Considering objections to your own arguments
200
Get feedback and use it
201
Modesty please
202
Oral Arguments
204
Reaching out to your audience
205
Be fully present
208
Signposting your own arguments
209
Offer something positive
211
Reframing arguments in a postive way
212
Use visual aids sparingly
217
End in style
218
Evalutating oral presentations
220
Some Common Fallacies
222
Identifying fallacies part 1
227
Reinterpreting and revising fallacious arguments part 1
232
Identifying fallacies part 2
235
Argument Mapping
262
Mapping simple arguments
267
Mapping complex arguments
271
Part 2
279
Short Arguments
281
Exercise Set 12 responses
284
Exercise Set 13 responses
286
Exercise Set 14 responses
287
Exercise Set 15 responses
290
Exercise Set 16 responses
292
Exercise Set 17 responses
294
Generalizations
299
Exercise Set 22 responses
301
Exercise Set 23 responses
303
Exercise Set 24 responses
305
Exercise Set 25 responses
309
Exercise Set 26 responses
311
Exercise Set 27 responses
314
Arguments by Analogy
318
Exercise Set 32 responses
320
Exercise Set 33 responses
322
Exercise Set 34 responses
327
Sources
328
Exercise Set 42 responses
331
Exercise Set 43 responses
332
Exercise Set 44 responses
334
Arguments about Causes
336
Exercise Set 52 responses
338
Exercise Set 53 responses
340
Exercise Set 54 responses
343
Deductive Arguments
346
Exercise Set 62 responses
347
Exercise Set 63 responses
349
Exercise Set 64 responses
350
Exercise Set 65 responses
354
Extended Arguments
357
Exercise Set 73 responses
359
Exercise Set 75 responses
363
Exercise Set 77 responses
365
Exercise Set 79 responses
367
Argumentative Essays
369
Exercise Set 82 responses
371
Exercise Set 84 responses
374
Oral Arguments
378
Exercise Set 93 reponses
381
Exercise Set 94 responses
385
Exercise Set 95 responses
387
Exercise Set 102 responses
390
Exercise Set 103 responses
392
Exercise Set 104 responses
393
Exercise Set 105 responses
395
Exercise Set 106 responses
402
Definitions
405
Exercise Set 112 responses
410
Argument Mapping
414
Exercise Set 122 responses
418
Part 3
423
Critical Thinking Activities
425
Writing a letter to the editor
426
Creating a visual argument
427
Finding misleading statistics
428
Generalizations about your classroom
429
Using analogies to understand unusual objects
430
Using analogies in ethical reasoning
432
Finding good sources
434
Bluffing about causal explanations
435
Compiling your research into an extended outline
440
Improving a sample paper
441
Compiling a draft of an argumentative essay
444
Peerreview workshop
445
Writing opening lines
448
Creating a visual aid
449
Oral presentations
450
Inclass debates
451
Extended inclass group debates
453
Relating rules and fallacies
455
Identifying reinterpreting and revising fallacies
456
Criticalthinking public service announcements
457
Defining key terms in an essay
458
Defining difficult terms
459
Argument mapping workshop
460
Developing your own arguments using argument maps
462
Index
463
Copyright

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About the author (2011)

David R. Morrow is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Anthony Weston is Professor of Philosophy and Environmental Studies at Elon University.

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