A Bulletin on Orchard Practice

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C.W. Gorham, 1906 - Fruit-culture - 24 pages
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Page 20 - Apple crown-gall is of two types — a hard, callous form is common on grafted trees at the union of root and scion, and at any other point of the root system where wounds occur in either the cultivation or transplanting of trees.
Page 5 - The above practice is recommended for all regions east of the Cascades. Trees on the west of the mountains should be treated a little differently. In most sections on the west side, and especially in the warmer valleys, trees make an extraordinary wood growth. It is no uncommon thing to find young prunes and cherries making a growth of six to ten feet in a single season. The excessive moisture in soil and atmosphere, and the mild climate, is conducive of this rapid growth.
Page 5 - We must prune in the winter and prune hard. The tendency of all our young trees is to run to premature fruiting. Cherries carrying a crop of fruit at two years old, and pears and apples bearing full crops at five and six years old. To overcome this tendency in our trees we must practice a system of pruning that is conducive to wood and leaf growth, and to discourage all forms of summer pruning and pinching.
Page 24 - Hard soap (preferably whale-oil) % pound Water 1 gallon Dissolve the soap in the water by boiling. Add the suds, boiling hot, to the oil. Churn the mixture violently with a spray pump until it becomes a thick, creamy mass. If perfectly emulsified, the oil will not rise to the surface even after standing an indefinite time. Such an emulsion may be used immediately or may be kept as a stock mixture.
Page 5 - ... judicious use of water, made to produce abundantly of the choicest fruits of the earth. "There is no question in my mind as to what is the proper method to adopt in pruning our fruit trees on the east side of the mountains. We must prune in winter, and prune hard. The tendency of all our young trees is to run to premature fruiting, cherries carrying a crop of fruit at two years old, and pears and apples bearing full crops at five and six years old. To overcome this tendency in our trees we must...
Page 24 - ... in the water by boiling, and add the suds boiling hot to the kerosene, away from the fire. The mixture is then to be agitated violently, preferably by pumping it back on itself with a force pump. After four or five minutes the mixture suddenly becomes creamy in consistency.
Page 6 - The excessive moisture in soil and atmosphere, and the mild climate, is conducive of this rapid growth. Trees grow late in the season, and there is some difficulty in securing thoroughly ripened wood. To cut back severely in winter aggravates the evil, more and longer wood is the result. The way to check this excessive growth is to resort to summer pruning and pinching and even to root pruning.
Page 22 - ... Patent dated August 11, 1854. (No. 1753.) Claim. — 1. The construction of a vessel or outer case, similar to an inverted syphon or pressure-gauge one leg of which is exposed to the pressure of the gas or other fluid and the other to the atmospheric pressure. 2. The construction of a float of nearly the same specific gravity as the fluid in which it is suspended, and of such a form that the fluid flowing against the valve, as it passes into the outlet-pipe, shall...
Page 19 - J4 of an inch to 6 inches long by }4 of an inch to 5 inches in width. Frequently they appear to be much larger. As a rule these larger ones are the result of two or more smaller ones merging together. The cankered bark becomes dry and brittle and separates from the living leaving a fissure. It remains on the tree for a time and then falls out leaving a scar. About the time the cankers are full grown the epidermis on the cankers become slightly roughened by the formation of pustules just beneath it.
Page 18 - ... causes a disease of both the tree and fruit. It differs from bitter rot, however, in that the canker stage does by far the greater amount of damage. This stage during the past few years has become very prevalent in the Maple Ridge and Mission districts of British Columbia and in Western Oregon and Western Washington in localities where the rainfall is considerable during the latter part of autumn and early winter. In January, 1903, numerous decaying apples were found among stored fruit. A few...

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