A climate modelling primer
Climate. The components of climate. Climate change assessment. Climate forcings. Climate feedbacks and sensitivity. Range of questions for climake modelling. A history of and introduction to climate models. Introducing climate modelling. Types of climate models. History of climate modelling. Sensitivity of climate models. Parameterization of climate processes. Simulation of the full, interacting climate system: one goal of modelling. Emergy balance models. Balancing the planetary radiation budget. The structure of energy balance models. Parameterizing the climate system for energy balance models. A basic energy balance climate model. Energy balance models and glacial cycles. Box models - another form of energy balance model - another form of energy balance model. Energy balance models: deceptively simple models. Computationally efficient models. Why lower complexity? One-dimensional radiative-convective models. Radiation: the driver of climate. Convective adjustment. Sensitivity experiments with radiative-convective models. Development of radiative-convective models. Two-dimensional statistical dynamical climate models. Other types of computationally efficient models. Why are some climate modellers flatlanders? General circulation climate models. Three-dimensional models of the climate system. Atmospheric general circulation models. Atmospheric GCM components. Modelling the ocean circulation. Modelling the cryosphere. Incorporating vegetation. Coupling models: towards the AOBGCM. Using GCMs. Evaluation and ...
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A History of and Introduction to Climate Models
Energy Balance Models
Computationally Efficient Models
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absorption aerosols AGCM American Meteorological Society atmosphere and ocean atmospheric models Atmospheric Sciences calculated Chapter circulation models climate change climate sensitivity climate system cloud complex components computational convective coupled cryosphere deep ocean deforestation developed dynamics Earth Earth’s surface eddy effect emissions energy balance energy balance model equation equilibrium feedback Figure ﬂow ﬂux GCMs Geophysical Research global climate models greenhouse grid heat ﬂux Henderson-Sellers ice sheet impact increase inﬂuence infrared integrated assessment models intemal interactions intercomparisons IPCC Journal of Geophysical land-surface lapse rate latitude Manabe meridional mixed layer model simulations moisture momentum Mount Pinatubo numerical ocean model ozone parameterization perturbation precipitation predictions PRINT PRINT PRINT processes radiative RC models reﬂected regions reproduced by permission resolution response schemes sea-ice signiﬁcant solar constant solar radiation speciﬁc stratospheric surface albedo surface temperature three-dimensional time-scales timestep transport tropical tropospheric two-dimensional types variables variations vertical water vapour