A Comparative Grammar of the Indo-Germanic Languages: A Concise Exposition of the History of Sanskrit, Old Iranian ... Old Armenian, Greek, Latin, Umbro-Samnitic, Old Irish, Gothic, Old High German, Lithuanian and Old Church Slavonic, Volume 1
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ablaut analogy anaptyxis arisen Armen arose Aryan assimilation Avestic Baltic-Slavonic became Beitr beside Boeot chief accent consonants Cret Cymr dialects diphthongs disappeared e. g. Skr explosives final syllables formation Gall Germ Germanic Goth Greek Horn Hubschmann imper Indg initial instr Iranian Ital Kelt Keltic Kuhn's Ztschr labialisation languages Latin latter Lesb Lett liquids Lith long vowels masc mediae nasal neut O.Bulg O.Cymr O.Icel O.Ir O.Lat O.Pers older orig original Oscan Osthoff Morph Osthoff Zur Gesch palatal palatalised partly perf period pres pret prim probably Pruss remained root Sanskrit secondary accent short vowels shortening sing Slav Slavonic sonant sound spirants stem Str.g suffix syllables tautosyllabic tenues Thurneysen Umbr unaccented voiceless word
Page 208 - Sanskrit, at any rate, they are very widely interchangeable, both in roots and in suffixes: there is hardly a root containing an /, which does not show also forms with r; words written with the one letter are found in other texts, or in other parts of the same texts, written with the other.
Page 17 - Indg. words had towards the end of the root-period, and this applies especially to the fact that we are unable to say whether the language at this stage possessed only monosyllabic words, or only words of more than one syllable, or both categories. Secondly the analysis of elements, which were directly annexed to the ends of roots, is of a most doubtful nature. And lastly we are unable to determine what phonetic changes inflexional compounds had undergone from the beginning up to the dissolution...
Page 24 - Sanskrit these k' g' sounds are uniformly represented by the so-called "cerebrals" or "linguals" written / d. Whitney, 1. c., §45, says: "The lingual mutes are by all native authorities defined as uttered with the tip of the tongue turned up and drawn back into the dome of the palate (somewhat as the usual English smooth r is pronounced"). They are (§46) "perhaps derived from the aboriginal languages of India".
Page 9 - However, in the end he decided to let it to us on a seven-years' lease with the option of renewal. copper-mine at the end of the eighteenth or beginning of the nineteenth century, and it had a large copper roof.
Page 14 - We have to presuppose a period in which suffixal elements were not yet attached to words. The word-forms of this period are called roots, and the space of time prior to inflexion, is called the root-period.
Page 245 - ... given vowel-sound, and the attempts to reduce each of the series to a set of three, viz. weak grade, middle grade, and strong grade, have not as yet been successful. Brugmann (Grundriss, § 309) distinguishes six ablaut-series (series of vowel-gradation) in the original Aryan.
Page 13 - Indo-European forms,' says Brugmann (Compendium, Engl. tr., I, p. 13, §12), 'we generally mean those forms which were in use toward the close of the primitive period.1 But we also often mean such forms as 1 The vagueness of this limit is pointed out below, §10. belonged to an earlier period of this stage and which had already undergone a change toward its termination. Forms put down by us as primitive Indo-European . . . are therefore not to be indiscriminately regarded as belonging to the same...
Page 23 - Marathi etc. runs into the following list: /aaiiuurrrjeaioaurnh k kh g gh nc ch j jh nt th d dh nt th d dh np ph b bh myr...
Page 14 - What we understand by word-formation and inflexion arose by composition, that is, by the following process: a group of words which formed a syntactical complex was fused into a unity, in which the whole was in some way isolated in relation to its elements1).