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THE ECOLOGY OF P POLYXENES IN COSTA RICA
THE ECOLOGY OF P POLYXENES IN NEW YORK
COMPARATIVE LIFE HISTORIES AND UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES
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adult weight asterius average biomass black swallowtail Bosque Brood cage treatments carota clutch colonization Cork Costa Rican females Costa Rican larvae Costa Rican populations culata curves decreased density diapause diapause response dispersal eclosion ecology egg and larval egg weight environmental evolutionary favor fecundity Feeny field fifth instar Figure genetic growth rates habitat history characteristics history evolution history theory host plant patches increased individuals Ingested instar instar larvae iteroparity K-selection laboratory large predators larvae gain larval duration larval growth larval survivorship Lederhouse Montana months after plowing nitrogen occurs oviposition paniculata Papilio polyxenes parameters parasitoid photoperiod population ecology pupae pupal weight g pupation rates of predation reared relative result Rica samples season senescing significantly small predators species stages successional survival survivorship curves survivorship data Table temperatures third instar Tompkins County Turrialba umbellifer utilization variability York and Costa York females York larvae York populations