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Experimental Apparatus and Procedures
Mathematical Model and Finite Element Formulation
Comparison of Simulations to the Experiments
5 other sections not shown
304 Stainless Steel algorithm Alumel analysis Appendix Axial Displacement axis boundary conditions capacitor capacitor bank Chromel comparison configuration constant constitutive equation convective coupling Current and Force current pulse deformation rate Drop and Surface effects electrical Electrical Resistivity error sources Euler integration Eulerian evaluated experimental apparatus Experimental Welder Final Measured Surface Finite Element Mesh fixture flow formulation free surface function gradients Heat and Resistivity heat generation rate heat transfer Interface Region intrinsic thermocouple large deformation load washer material behavior material model mathematical model Measured Quantities Measured Surface Profile mechanical constitutive equation mesh repair method nodal points output process model purely viscoplastic quasi-Lagrangian reference frame remeshing scheme shown in Figure simulations solution spatial specific heat steady-state strain hardening stress Surface Profile Table Temperature Measurement term thermal conductivity Thermocouple Installation transient response type 304 stainless typical undisturbed surface temperature unit step response upset welding viscoplastic representation voltage drop Weld Specimen wire