A continuous flow system using fish and amphibian eggs for bioassay determinations on embryonic mortality and teratogenesis, Parts 2-6
Wesley J. Birge, Jeffrey A. Black, United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Toxic Substances, Kentucky
Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Toxic Substances, 1977 - Nature - 59 pages
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4-7 days posthatching ALEVINS Amer amphibian species anomalies arrow background contaminants bioassay bioassay system boron boron compounds channel catfish chlorinated hydrocarbon CJ O CJ CM CM CM concentration continuous flow bioassays coo coo coo CTl CTl CTl culture chamber culture room defective developmental stages dorsal dorsal fin e.g_ early juvenile stages egg culture Electron capture detector embryonic mortality environmental toxicants exposure levels fish and amphibian fish eggs flow rate goldfish H H H hatching hexane immobile lower jaw Kentucky largemouth bass mercury methylene chloride mg/l mixing chamber ml/hr monitoring natural water o o o o o o peristaltic pump ppm CaC03 procedures rainbow trout sensitivity spawning spinal column synthetic culture water Table temperature teratogenesis teratogenic test organisms test responses test species toxicants trace contaminants TROUT ALEVINS Tygon vertebral column water hardness levels yolk sac
Page 59 - Studies in Freshwater Fishery Biology," 3d revised ed., JW Edwards, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan. (1949) 309. Ellis, MM, "Water Conditions Affecting Aquatic Life in Elephant Butte Reservoir," US Dept. of the Interior Bulletin No. 34. (1940) 310. Hart, WB, Doudoroff, P., and Greenbank, John, "Evaluation of Toxicity of Industrial Wastes, Chemicals and Other Substances to Fresh-water Fishes," Water Control Lab. Atlantic Refining Co., Philadelphia, Penna. (1945) 311. Cole, AE, "The Effects of Pollutional...
Page 61 - Environmental toxicants may be screened for teratogenic and other embryopathic effects (e_.£. , mortality, locomotor impairment) on eggs, embryos, and early juvenile stages. Toxicant concentration may be regulated down to 1.0-0.1 ppb for an exposure period extending from fertilization through 4-7 days posthatching. Bioassays may be performed with either natural or synthetic water, and...
Page 56 - Chronic toxicity, uptake, and retention of Aroclor 1254 in two estuarine fishes. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
Page 1 - It appears plausible that reproductive potential of natural animal populations may be severely restricted or abolished by trace levels of toxicants which are harmless or sublethal to most adult organisms. Accordingly, protective environmental standards and pollution abatement policies, which have been based to a considerable extent on tolerances of adult animals, may not provide adequate protection for embryonic development and reproduction of many species.
Page 61 - Kentucky 12. SPONSOR1NG AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS Office of Toxic Substances US Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC 20460 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO. 11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
Page 8 - ... 6 by 10ft environmental room. The inlet lines from the mixing chambers (A) were attached with rapid disconnects (black arrow). The watertight drainboard (B) contained spillage. The test chamber outlet lines (white arrow) were connected to waste receptacles (C). The flow-through system was operated using Brinkmann (Model 131900) and Gilson (Model HP8) multichannel peristaltic pumps and Sage syringe pumps (Model 355). Sage pumps were fitted with modified syringe holders, and each unit was operated...
Page 59 - Trout and salmon culture. State of California Department of Fish and Game, Fish Bulletin No. 107.
Page 8 - ... by regulated flow from a peristaltic pump. The solutions from the two pump channels were mixed by mechanical stirring or homogenization and delivered from the mixing unit to the exposure chamber under positive pressure. The exposure concentration was regulated by adjusting the mixing ratio between the pumping units and/or by varying the concentration of toxicant delivered from the syringe pump. The flow rates from the syringe and peristaltic pumps were monitored with liquid flow meters (Gilmont,...
Page 1 - ... are harmless or sublethal to most adult organisms. Accordingly, protective environmental standards and pollution abatement policies, which have been based to a considerable extent on tolerances of adult animals, may not provide adequate protection for embryonic development and reproduction of many species. Numerous organic toxicants are known to inhibit animal reproduction (1-18).