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PARAFAC and PARAFAC solutions for individual
The experimental design
6 other sections not shown
3-D solution 3-D space 3-dimensional acoustic variables additive constant amplitude appear back vowels Back/Nonback2 binary c.f. Figure Chapter clusters co-ordinates COSCAL distinctive feature English listeners Euclidean distances formant frequencies front vowels fundamental frequency German and Turkish Hanson Height and Backness Hertz high vowels High/Nonhigh hypothesis interpretation judgments labelled Ladefoged language linear regression linguistic Low/Nonlow matrices MD-scaling mid vowels nasal native vowels Nonback Nonround number of dimensions PARAFAC analysis PARAFAC dimensions PARAFAC solution pattern perceptual dimensions perceptual distance perceptual space Peripheral/Central personal weighting factors phonemes plane plotted Pols possible prediction present relative responses retroflex retroflexion rotation Round/Nonround rounded vowels salient sample scalar products scale set of vowels similar Singh and Woods speakers stimuli stimulus vowels subjects Thai listeners three dimensions triadic comparisons triads Turkish listeners unrounded vowel height vowel pairs vowel quality vowel space ZT 9T