A definitive reconstructed text of the Coligny calendar
The fragmentary calendar plate from Coligny (near Lyons) apparently dates to the second-century AD, although the Gaulish calendar engraved on this plate is plainly the result of a long transmission process. The 25-year-cycle calendar, the final system of this transmission process, probably originated early in the first-century BC, before Caesarżs conquest. It is within this late pre-Roman period that the calendar took on its final form and notation to enter a two-century long transmission process. Since only 40% of the original Coligny calendar survives as a fragmentary mosaic, the reconstruction of the original whole depends upon recognizing repetitive patterns and filling in the missing sequences of these patterns. The most significant of these patterns is that discerned in the schemes of the TII and the N lunar/solar counting marks and their associated notation. Here the chronological cycles implied by these notational patterns are explained in detail. Also provided is a glossary of the functional and etymological significance of terms utilized in these daily notational patterns. The fragmentary calendar is brought to photographic completion utilizing the original wording and engraving found on the surviving fragments.
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25-year calendar 25-year cycle 30 days 5-year phase AMB 12 hrs Anagantio ANM months anmatus anomalous days ATENOVX calendar plate Celtic clearly Coligny calendar columns counting scheme dative Dumannios end of Equos engravers etymologies exact lunar fall fall-back fortnight full moon function Gaulish calendar GIAMON Giamonios half I I I I I I IIIIIM IILF indicated Indo-European Studies INNIS intercalary month Irish IVOS days Lambert later each day lunar calendar lunar months lunar phases marks matus divos MATV midwinter month names N-counting notation noux sonno NOVX NSDS occurs on day OGRON Olmsted ordinal numeral original pattern Pinault PRINNI LAGET PRINNI LOVDIN PRINO reconstruction returning night RIVRI Rivros 10a SAMON Samonios shifted days significance SINDIV solar pathway solstice dates solstice occurs suggested summer solstice sun daily term occurs Thurneysen TRINO trinux unciae Drusianus utilized Welsh winter solstice