A Dictionary of Literary Devices: Gradus, A-Z
University of Toronto Press, 1991 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 545 pages
'Common-sense, ' the Romantic critics told us, was all that was needed to understand and interpret literary texts. Today, we know this is not generally true. Modern criticism has joined with pre-Romantic criticism to expose common-sense as appropriate (because simple-minded), inadequate to comprehend and interpret verbal structures which are frequently 'non- common]sensical, ' anti-commonsensical, or even nonsensical. The difference between readers today and their earlier counterparts is that we have lost the full vocabulary of criticism and the consciousness of the literary and rhetorical devices with which texts are created. Yet these devices are still available to us, still practised even if unwittingly and on an impoverished scale. "Gradus," originally published in French in 1984, was designed to make good that loss, to reanimate those skills. Comprising some 4000 terms, defined and illustrated, it calls upon the resources of linguistics, poetics, semiotics, socio-criticism, rhetoric, pragmatics, combining them in ways which enable readers quickly to comprehend the codes and conventions which together make up 'literarity.' Skilfully translated into English, and adapted for an English-language audience with illustrations taken from an astonishing range of contemporary texts, literary and popular, drawn from literature, radio, television, and the theatre, "Gradus" will be a constant source of information and delight.
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accent adjective allusion anacoluthon Analogous terms antanaclasis antimetabole aposiopesis apostrophe argument assertion Bald Soprano become caesura called character Concise Oxford Dictionary Cuddon definition device dialogue Dictionnaire discourse Dylan Thomas elements ellipsis Eluard emphasis English enunciation epanalepsis example exclamation expression false figure Fontanier French frequently Frye function genre Grambs grammatical graphic homoioteleuton hyperbaton ideas interjection intonation irony isolexism isotopy Joyce kind language Lanham Lausberg sect letters lexemes lexical literary litotes Littre marks Marouzeau meaning metaphor metonymy Michaux modern Morier narrative noun Oeuvres opposite parataxis parody paronomasia periphrasis play pleonasm poem poetry Preminger produce proper names prosopopoeia Queneau question Quillet quotation quoted reader repetition rhetorical rhyme rhythm rhythmic Robert semantic sentence Shakespeare sound speak speaker speech style surrealist syllables syllepsis synecdoche Synonyms synonymy syntactic syntagm T.S. Eliot thing tion Tom Stoppard Ulysses utterance verse vowels word