## A First Course in String TheoryAn accessible introduction to string theory, this book provides a detailed and self-contained demonstration of the main concepts involved. The first part deals with basic ideas, reviewing special relativity and electromagnetism while introducing the concept of extra dimensions. D-branes and the classical dynamics of relativistic strings are discussed next, and the quantization of open and closed bosonic strings in the light-cone gauge, along with a brief introduction to superstrings. The second part begins with a detailed study of D-branes followed by string thermodynamics. It discusses possible physical applications, and covers T-duality of open and closed strings, electromagnetic fields on D-branes, Born/Infeld electrodynamics, covariant string quantization and string interactions. Primarily aimed as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate courses, it will also be ideal for a wide range of scientists and mathematicians who are curious about string theory. |

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### Contents

Special relativity and extra dimensions | 12 |

Electromagnetism and gravitation in various dimensions | 40 |

l0 Large extra dimensions | 61 |

The relativistic point particle | 78 |

Problems | 87 |

String parameterization and classical motion | 116 |

Worldsheet currents | 132 |

Lightcone relativistic strings | 149 |

Dbrane charges | 321 |

Open strings and the Standard Model fermions | 328 |

The Standard Model on intersecting D6branes | 337 |

String theory and particle physics | 344 |

l6 String thermodynamics and black holes | 352 |

Hagedorn temperature | 361 |

Black holes and entropy | 368 |

A string theorygauge theory correspondence | 377 |

l0 Lightcone fields and particles | 166 |

Quantum scalar fields and particle states | 172 |

Gravitational fields and graviton states | 180 |

The relativistic quantum point particle | 187 |

Lightcone momentum generators | 197 |

l2 Relativistic quantum open strings | 206 |

l23 Strings as harmonic oscillators | 215 |

Lorentz generators | 229 |

Equations of motion | 236 |

l3 Relativistic quantum closed strings | 247 |

Closed string Virasoro operators | 253 |

String coupling and the dilaton | 260 |

l4 lbranes and gauge fields | 275 |

l5 String charge electric charge and particle physics | 307 |

Visualizing string charge | 313 |

l7 Tduality of closed strings | 386 |

Quantization and the double strike | 393 |

A striking spectrum coincidence | 401 |

l8 Tduality of open strings | 410 |

Wilson lines on circles | 420 |

Dbranes with electric fields | 428 |

Nonlinear and BornInfeld electrodynamics | 442 |

2I Covariant string quantization | 459 |

Lorentz covariant state space | 468 |

String interactions and Riemann surfaces | 481 |

Loop amplitudes in string theory | 518 |

Problems | 536 |

References | 547 |

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### Common terms and phrases

action black hole bosonic boundary conditions brane circle classical closed string commutation relations compact dimension components configuration Consider constant constraints curve D-branes defined denote derivatives electric field electromagnetic energy entropy equations of motion extra dimensions fermions field theory Figure function gauge field gauge transformations gives gravitational Hamiltonian howevers integral interactions intersection Kalb-Ramond Kalb-Ramond field Lagrangian density left-handed length light-cone light-cone coordinates light-cone gauge Lorentz invariant magnetic field mass massless matrix Maxwell field metric moduli space momenta momentum open string orientifold oscillators parameter parameterization physical Planck length plane point particle potential Problem punctures quantization quarks Quick calculation radius relativistic string reparameterization result Riemann surfaces right-hand side satisfy scalar field Schrodinger Section Show spacetime Standard Model string coordinates string coupling string diagram string endpoints string theory superstring theory supersymmetry symmetry T-duality tachyon torus transverse tsee vanishes vector velocity Virasoro operators world-sheet