A fiscal needs approach to equalization transfers in a decentralized federation
World Bank, Policy Research Department, Public Economics Division, 1994 - Business & Economics - 35 pages
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Alberta Anwar Shah approach to equalization April 1994 April Auld Australia Boadway and Flatters British Columbia calculations Canada Discussion Paper Canadian provinces Canadian Tax Foundation capita expenditure comprehensive equalization system Courchene 1984 Decentralized Federation Developing Countries efficiency and equity Equalization Entitlements equalization fund equalization in Canada equalization payments existing program Existing Representative Tax expenditure need entitlements Expenditure Need EQUALS expenditure side federal program federal-provincial Finance Canada Discussion fiscal benefits fiscal capacity fiscal equalization transfers fiscal equity fiscal federalism fiscal need approach Government of Canada income interprovincial March 1994 March measure expenditure needs Measurement of Expenditure municipalities national average Need/Cost Factors needs and revenue Needs of Subnational Nova Scotia Number Ontario optimal design Policy Research population density Post-Secondary Education Prince Edward Island Provincial-local expenditures public services Quebec reasonably comparable levels regression analysis Representative Expenditure System representative tax system Research Working Paper Resource Rents revenue means standardized expenditure subnational governments Table Total World Bank