A Grammar of Greek Language, Principally from the German of Kühner ...

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Harper & Bros., 1853 - 536 pages
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Page 444 - ¿i/cj/v, which are, so to say, in the transition-state between cases and prepositions, being sometimes used as one, sometimes as the other, will illustrate the mode by which prepositions arose. 2. But, though a relation which was implied in the powers of the original cases might be, and generally was, for the sake of clearness, expressed by a preposition, yet it does not follow that the original power of the cases to express this relation was, either in theory or practice, wholly lost ; so that...
Page 475 - Optative. The optative and subjunctive express, according to its different modifications and shades of meaning, that which in Latin can only be signified by the subjunctive. Both represent an action, not as something real, but rather as something only conceived of. That which is conceived of, however, is either something merely possible, probable, desirable, and, consequently, uncertain, or something which, as it depends on external circumstances, may be expected with some defmiteness.
Page 466 - ... formation exhibited the first exclusively. In a very few words only are both forms to be found ; and even in these, the duplicates, or the most part, belong to different dialects, ages, or styles. In import, these two forms of the aorist never differed. 16. A satisfactory illustration of the principle which has just been stated in relation to the second aorist may be found in our own language. In English, also, there are two originally distinct modes of forming the common past tense : the first...
Page 467 - We have evpov, e\aßov, eñov, í^a^ov, ë\iirov, i'Spafíuv ; but the regular form is as much a non-entity in these verbs as it is in the English verbs I found, I took, I saw, I led, I left, I ran, &c. The first aorist in these would be sheer vulgarity ; it would be parallel to, Ißnded, I taked, I seed.
Page 510 - ... when the penult was the place of the accent. Now it happens, that in Dr. ANTHON'S grammar, the rules are first given for the determination of the accented syllable, and then follow rules for determining the nature of the accent. This latter part has a general introduction in the following words : ' If the syllable on which the tone rests is known, the question then is, with what sign it is to be accented? Concerning this, the following rules obtain.
Page 504 - Homer, the hiatus so often before them, that, leaving these words out of the account, the hiatus, which is now so frequent in Homer, becomes extremely rare, and, in most of the remaining cases, can be easily and naturally accounted for. These same words have also, in comparison with others, an apostrophe very seldom before them ; and, moreover, the immediately preceding long vowels and diphthongs are far less frequently rendered short than before other words.
Page 442 - Care must, however, be taken not to consider passages of ancient authors as proofs of this usage where the dative can by any means be explained in a dependent sense. RULE CXVII. Instead of the genitive absolute, the nominative is also sometimes used, and, indeed, almost always when the participle stands without any definite subject ; consequently, in the case of impersonal verbs ; as...
Page 504 - II. From an attentive examination of the subject, the illustrious Bentley was led to conclude, that the words before which these deviations from the usual rules of prosody took place, although beginning with a vowel, must have been pronounced at least, if not written, as if beginning with a consonant. He recollected, that some ancient grammarians mentioned a letter as more particularly used by the...
Page 503 - Foi, or digamma, by splitting its upper part. This new letter was then placed after the T, while the F itself was omitted. 5. The lonians first adopted all the twenty-four letters, and of them first the Samians, from whom they were received by the Athenians ; but it was not till after the Peloponnesian War, in the archonship of Euclides (BC 403), that they were used in public acts. Hence the twenty-four letters are called 'laviita fpá/шата, and the old sixteen 'Атпка ура/ицата.
Page 467 - ... second or distinct preterit, but as an instance of irregular variety of formation obtaining in certain verbs. 17. It may be objected to this view of the subject, that there are verbs in Greek in which both forms of the aorist occur. A careful examination, however, will prove that the number of such verbs is extremely small compared with that of those which have only the one or the other aorist. But even here the analogy is supported by the English verb, since we meet with many instances in which...

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