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3d pers according Active adding adjectives Arabic Aram become called camel changed common compound consonant contracted corresponds damma denoting derived dialectically diminutive double dual elif especially example exception express feminine fern fetha final fourth Fract genitive give grammarians Hebrew hemza Hence Imperat Imperf Imperfect indicate Jussive kesra language letter masc meaning mediae rad nature nomen nomina nouns object occur oneself original Pass passive Perf Perfect persons plur plural preceding prefixed pronoun proper names rare regard rejected retained rule second radical signification sing singular sometimes sound stand strong substantives suffixes syllable termination thing third radical unites usually verba verbal adjectives verbi verbs vowel write written
Page 6 - Persians, unpronounceable) guttural, related in its nature to _, with which it is sometimes confounded. It is described as produced by a smart compression of the upper part of the windpipe and forcible emission of the breath.
Page 8 - С г, о, or о, can scarcely be laid down with certainty ; for the various dialects of the spoken Arabic differ from one another in these points ; and besides, owing to the emphasis with which the consonants are uttered, the vowels are in general somewhat indistinctly enunciated. The following rules may, however, be given for the guidance of the learner*. (a) When preceded or followed by the strong gutturals -.--ci, or the emphatic consonants ^a u¿ Ъ i...
Page 129 - All these nouns cannot, however, be formed from every triliteral verb. The majority of verbs admit of but one form, very few of more than two or three. What these are, must be learned from the Lexicon.
Page 34 - When the first or fourth form denotes an act, the relation of which to an object is expressed by means of a preposition (indirect object) the third form converts that indirect object into the immediate or direct object of the act (accusative). The idea of reciprocity is here, . . . more or less distinctly implied.
Page 78 - Passive, and to the third, fourth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and tenth forms. But in the second, fifth, ninth, and eleventh, the second or third radical cannot be united with the other, because it is already doubled. Consequently ^pVTptf, °'Jt\, and t|j| , undergo no contraction.
Page 262 - Уоип9 men, youth (jnvtntus), = vW-b ; *¿á'~« old men in general. The plurales fracti are consequently, strictly speaking, singulars with a collective signification, and often approach in their nature to abstract nouns. Hence, too, they are all of the feminine gender, and can be used as mase, only by a constrnctio ad sensum.
Page 4 - I , are frequently joined to a following h, if it be final : eg gj? dlda. 4. The correct pronunciation of some of the letters, as, for example, _ and c, it is scarcely possible for a European to acquire. Most of them, however, are sufficiently represented by the corresponding English characters, as may be seen from the following remarks : \ alif, or hamza (as it is commonly called, to distinguish it from the alif of prolongation), is the spiritus lenis of the Greeks.
Page 56 - ... verbs in which the second and third radicals are identical (see § 120) we shall call strong. NOTE. Students must spare no pains to learn the conjugations in § 369 Tables 1, 2 and 3; otherwise they will find the weak verbs difficult to impossibility. 84. The numbers, persons, and genders of the verbs are expressed by means of personal pronouns, annexed to the various moods and states. These may be connected, ie prefixed or suffixed, in which case they are to be learned from the...