A Grammar of the Hindūstānī Or Urdū Language

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W.H. Allen, 1892 - Urdu language - 399 pages

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Page 1 - Most of the letters have four forms in writing, depending on whether they occur at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a word or whether they stand separately.
Page 394 - To find the Christian year corresponding to that of the Hijra, apply the following rule : — From the given number of Musalman years deduct three per cent., and to the remainder add the number 621-54; the sum is the period of the Christian era at which the given current Musalman year ends. This rule is founded on the fact that 100 lunar years ore very nearly equal to 97 solar years, the difference being about eighteen days only.
Page 6 - Alusalman, it is pronounced like d: . c has a strong guttural sound, pronounced by a smart compression of the upper part of the wind-pipe, and forcible emission of the breath.
Page 101 - the complete or entire plural,' because all the vowels and consonants of the singular are retained in it The other, which has various forms, is called j-JZj^^-janfS taksir, * the broken plural,' because it is more or less altered from the singular by the addition or elision of consonants, or the change of vowels. 121. The complete, or regular plural of masculine nouns is formed by adding to the singular the termination ^~ Una ; eg ^/?l- Kuziriina, from y?\-
Page 341 - Mood, is also used in propositions, both leading and subordinate, which deal with/ae&, whether actual or assumed for the purpose of argument; in other words, it occurs in the Indicative Mood. The Aorist does not in itself express any idea of time ; it merely indicates a begun, incomplete, enduring existence • either in present or future time. Hence it has the signification of the English Present, as well as that of the Future Indefinite', eg - 'God knows.
Page 279 - This signification is then transferred to the relation subsisting between any two things, the one of which is regarded as the place in which the other is, or happens, or into which it goes or is put : as Jlc < ^>\pr
Page 394 - The Musalmans reckon by lunar time, their era called the IKjra commencing from the day on which Mohammad retreated from Mekka to Medina ; which, according to the best accounts, took place on Friday, the 16th of July (18th new style), AD 622. Their year consists of 12 lunations, amounting to 354 days and 9 hours, very nearly ; and hence their New Year's Day will happen every year about eleven days earlier than in the preceding year.
Page 237 - U*- what are the causes of this progress ? ' 290. If two or more subjects of different persons have a common predicate, the subjects are arranged in the order of the persons, beginning with the first, and the predicate is put in the first person plural if one of the subjects is of this person, and in the second person plural if the subjects are of the second and third persons : eg let me and you run* (lit.
Page 7 - J , * are exactly equivalent to the English I, m. ^ has three distinct sounds : it has the sound of the English n in not — 1) When it occurs at the beginning of a word or syllable, as \j ndm ; 2) at the end of a word or syllable, when preceded by a short vowel, as ^ Ian ; 3) in all Arabic words in which it' is not immediately followed by >__> b.
Page 93 - In the sixth form the idea of effort or attempt becomes reflexive : eg JftUf? tajahul, ' feigning ignorance.' •i'^ The fifth form (J-*Ju) is the reflexive of the second; but it is more commonly used with the effective signification, implying that an act is done to a person, or a state produced in him, whether caused by another or by himself: eg *1& 'ilm, ' knowledge,' *^*i ta'lim, ' teaching,' JJti ta'allum, ' becoming learned.' The idea of mtcnsivtneis (which is often found in the second form)...

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