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What Makes an Argument
SUMMARY OF CHAPTER THREE
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affirming the antecedent affirming the consequent air sacs alternative appealing to authority appealing to consequences argu arguer arguer's intent argument from analogy believe birds play categorical categorical syllogism certainly false commits the fallacy complex argument context conversational relevance correct form deductive argument denying the antecedent denying the consequent either-or statement eliminate epistemic probability example EXERCISES Chapter explanation explanatory argument expression fallacy of appealing frequency argument Guideline gument identify if-clause if-then premise if-then statement implicit inductive inference indicators intellectual invalid logical form logical success look means ment observable outcome paraphrase percent principle of charity prior probability probably false probably true reasonable objector Sample answer Sample exercise secondary assumption semantic ambiguity sentence sentential logic simple argument singular Socrates sort sound standard constant stylistic variants Suppose syntactic ambiguity term then-clause thing tion total evidence condition true or false true premises valid forms validity counterexample word