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absolute alcohol acetic acid added adulteration alcohol by volume alizarin alkali allowed ammonia amount aniline anthracene benzene bleaching blue boiling butter cane-sugar carbonate caustic soda cent chemical chloride coal-tar coloring matter commercial compounds contains cooled cotton crude crystals cubic centimetres decomposed determined dextrine dilute dissolved distillation dried dyeing ether evaporated extract fatty fermentation fibre filtered gallons glucose glycerine grammes heated hundred cubic centimetres hydrochloric acid impurities indigo insoluble juice kilos lime liquid liquor logwood malt maltose manufacture material melting method milk mixed mixture molasses mordants naphthalene nitrate nitric acid obtained odor oxide paraffine percentage petroleum potash potassium pounds powder precipitate prepared quantity residue resin rosin salt sample saponification shown in Fig silk soap sodium soluble solution specific gravity starch steam sucrate sulphate sulphuric acid tannin temperature tion tons treatment varieties varnish vinegar washed weight wine wool yellow yield
Page 260 - In this process an emulsion of lard is made by bringing together in a '; disintegrator" lard and skimmed milk, both previously heated to 140° Fahr. in steam-jacketed tanks; the " disintegrator" consists of a cylinder revolving within a cylindrical shell ; the surface of the cylinder is covered with fine serrated projections, each one of which is a tooth with a sharp point ; as this cylinder revolves rapidly within its shell, the mixture of melted lard and hot skimmed milk is forced up in the narrow...
Page 361 - Liquid products prevail ; and among the watery ones acetic acid (which is again a compound of the fatty series) is paramount. Of course also permanent gases are always given off, though in comparatively small quantity. If, on the other hand, the coal has been decomposed at a very high temperature, the molecules are grouped quite differently. Whilst...
Page 33 - Crude Petroleum shall be understood to be pure natural oil, neither steamed nor treated, free from water, sediment, or any adulteration, of the gravity of 43° to 48° Beaume.
Page 257 - Fat from freshly slaughtered cattle after thorough washing is placed in clean water and surrounded with ice, where it is allowed to remain until all animal heat has been removed. It is then cut into small pieces by machinery and cooked at a temperature of about 150° F.
Page 381 - Nickels: 250 cc or 10 ounces measure of the tar is placed in a retort which it only one-third fills, so as not to spoil the distillate if there is much frothing during distillation. The retort should be supported on a cup*shaped piece of coarse wire gauze, placed in an aperture in a sheet-iron plate. Over the retort is placed a dome, made by removing the bottom from a tin can or bottle and cutting out a piece of the side to allow the neck of the retort to pass through. This contrivance confines the...
Page 22 - The condensing apparatus varies somewhat in the details of its construction, but consists essentially of long coils of pipe immersed in tanks through which water is kept flowing. The terminal portions of the condensing pipes all converge and enter the receiving house within a few inches of...
Page 362 - ... portion of the free carbon occurs in a state of extremely fine division in the tar, and forms a constituent of the pitch or coke remaining behind from tar-distilling ; another portion contributes to the formation of compounds richer in carbon, belonging to the "aromatic" series, all of which are derived from benzene, C6H6. At the same time the action of heat effects further molecular " condensations," usually with separation of hydrogen, by which process compounds of a higher molecular * Davis,...
Page 135 - in which no attempt is made to produce a crystalline article, but only to evaporate the liquor to such a point that when cold it will assume a solid (concrete) state. The mass is removed as fast as formed, and being plastic while warm it can be cast into blocks of any convenient shape and size, hardening as it cools. In this state it can be shipped in bags or matting, siiffering neither deliquescence nor drainage. The "concretor...
Page 49 - ... when fresh, somewhat viscid, but as a drying oil it gradually absorbs oxygen and becomes thick and eventually dry and hard. The specific gravity of the fresh oil is .935 at 15° C. It is used almost exclusively in the preparation of paints, varnishes, printers
Page 24 - In color it has been changed from brownish-yellow to a very light straw shade. The oil is now washed with water introduced through a perforated pipe running around the upper circumference of the tank. This water percolates through the body of the oil, removes the acid, and is allowed to escape in a constant stream from the bottom. When the wash-water shows no appreciable acid taste or reaction, the washing is stopped, and about one per cent, of a caustic soda solution of 12° B.