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FIBROUS RAW MATERIALS I
PREPARATION OF RAG HALF STUFF
a STOCK PREPARATION
16 other sections not shown
acid action alkaline alum applied beater beating bleaching bonding calcium calender carbonate cell cellulose chemical chips chlorine chlorine dioxide coater coating colour consistency cylinder defibring digestion dioxide disc refiners drying dyes effect esparto fibre structure fibre walls fibrillation fibrous Figure filler flow formation Fourdrinier machines ft/min grades groundwood hardwoods hemicelluloses hydrogen bonds increase kraft kraft process lignin liquor load magnetic flow meter material measured mechanical methods metres microfibrils millimetres moisture content molecules opacity operation owing paper and board paper machine paper/board papermaking pigments pressure printing produce properties pulper removed resin roll rosin screen secondary wall sheet strength sizing soda sodium softwood speed stage starch steam stock preparation straw substance sulphite sulphite pulp supercalenders surface surfactants takes place temperature tensile treatment unbleached viscosity washing waste paper weight wire wood wood pulp