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PREFACE BY JACQUES FIRENNE II
LU THE MUSULMAN INVASION
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12th century administration aristocracy Barbarians batde became become beginning bishops Bohemia bourgeoisie Burgundy Byzantine Byzantium Carolingian centre Charlemagne Charles Charles the Simple Christian Church cities civilization clergy commercial conflict conquest Constantinople constitution Count of Flanders crown Crusade death domain Duke dynasty ecclesiastical economic election Emperor enemy England Europe European faith favour feudal fief Flanders Frederick French frontier gave German Gregory Habsburg henceforth Henry Hohenstaufens Hungary Imperial imposed industry influence interests invasion Italian Italy King of France King of Germany kingdom knights litde Lombards Louis Low Countries magnates Mediterranean merchants merely Middle Ages military monarchy monasteries Musulman nobility nobles Normans North organization Otto Papacy peasants Philip Augustus Philip the Fair political Pope population possession presendy princes quarrels Reformation regarded reign religious remained Renaissance Rome royal secular seigneur Sicily Slav social society sovereign Spain spirit successor territory took trade tradition Turks urban vassals