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Finnish shipping in the shadow
The era of Stockholm tar
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Aland Atlantic average Baltic Black Sea Bothnian capital cargo space carried coast companies costs countries cross-trading decades decline demand domestic Dutch economic Effoa estimated Estonia Europe excluding export and import figures Finnish exports Finnish merchant marine Finnish merchant tonnage Finnish Official Statistics Finnish sailing vessels Finnish shipping Finnish tonnage Finnish towns Finnish vessels foreign trade freight market grew gross income gross tons growth Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gustav Vasa Hamina Helsinki historia included increased labour lasts less levels liner loaded long-distance Loviisa mainly maritime transport Mediterranean merchant fleet North Sea Ostrobothnia passing the Sound peasant shipping peasant vessels ports Porvoo proportion Rauma Russia Sailing into Twilight sailing tonnage sawn shipbuilding shipowners Source staple towns steam tonnage steamers steamships Stockholm Suomen Sweden Swedish Tallinn timber total tonnage traffic tramp Turku Uusikaupunki Vaasa volume voyages wages windjammers Yrjo Kaukiainen