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WEST SUDAN STATES
CENTRAL SUDAN STATES
ISLAMIC STAGNATION AND PAGAN REACTION
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Abd Allah Ahmad Al-'Umarl al-Bakrl al-hajj Umar almami Arab As-Sa'dl as-Sudan askiya Awdaghast Bagirmi Bambara Barth became Belo Berbers Bornu Bornuan called capital central Sudan centre century Chad chief chieftaincies clan clerics conquest cult defeated Delafosse Dyara dynasty empire Fattdsh founded Fulbe Futa Jalon Futa Toro gained control Gana Ghana Gobir gold governor groups H. R. Palmer Hamadu Hausa Ibn Battuta Ibn Khaldun Ibrahim Idrls influence inhabitants Islam Jenne jihad Kanem Kano Katsina Kawkaw Kebbi king kingdom Maghrib Mahmud al-Kati Mali Mande Mandinka Mansa Masina Mossi Muhammad Musa Muslim Negro Niger nomadic North Africa pagan political Pulo Rabih raided region reign religion ruler ruling Sahara Sahil Sanhaja Segu Senegal Shaikh slaves Sokoto Songhay Soninke Sudan Sudanese Sulaiman sultan Sun Dyata Takrur Timbuktu Tokolor town trading tradition transl Travels tribes Tuareg Tunjur Uthman vassal village Waday West Africa western whilst Wolof writes Zaghawa