A History of Foreign Language Testing in the United States: From Its Beginnings to the Present
A History of Foreign Language Testing in the United States is the first comprehensive treatment of how foreign language testing has evolved during the past one hundred plus years into the complex, heterogeneous field it represents today. Providing an in-depth historical understanding of the subject, the author charts the evolution of language testing from its earliest existence as a coherent activity in the final years of the nineteenth century to its current status as a legitimate focus for specialization and inquiry. He also suggests future directions in the field such as computer-assisted testing. This volume will be of interest to practitioners and researchers in such fields as applied linguistics, educational measurement and psychometrics, language teacher training, bilingualism/multiculturalism, and bilingual education.
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The Testing Wave
The Depression Decade
The Second World War
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ability academic achievement ACTFL ACTFL/ETS scale ASTP audiolingualism auditory bilingual candidates classroom cloze test College Board communicative contrastive analysis Cooperative tests correlations decade devised dictation discrete-point test Educational Testing Service eign language elements English errors evaluation factors foreign lan Foreign Language Study foreign language teaching foreign language testing Foreign Service Institute German goals grading grammar guage testing high school Institute integrative testing inter-rater reliability interest kind Lado language proficiency large number learners linguistic litde measure Méras Modern Foreign Language Modern Language multiple-choice native speakers new-type tests non-native offered oral interview oral proficiency oral testing passage percent placement practice Proficiency Tests pronunciation published questions raters reading redundancy Regents examination reliability reported scores Spanish speak speech standardized statistical T-unit target language teachers teaching and testing testers testing research Testing Service theory tion TOEFL topic tradition translation United University validity vocabulary words