A history of [pi symbol] (pi)
History of pi, says the author, though a small part of the history of mathematics, is nevertheless a mirror of the history of man. Petr Beckmann holds up this mirror, giving the background of the times when pi made progress and also when it did not, because science was being stifled by militarism or religious fanaticism. The mathematical level of this book is flexble, and there is plenty for readers of all ages and interests.
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17th century 20th century Alexandria angle approximation Arabic Archimedean polygons Archimedes arctangent astronomer axioms Babylonians brim calendar Carl Friedrich Gauss century B.C. circle ratio circumference compasses compasses and straightedge construction continued fraction convergence cubits curve decimal digits decimal places derived diameter digit hunters Dinostratus discovered discovery Egypt Egyptians engineering equal Euclid Euclidean Euclidean geometry Euler Euler's Theorem example figure formula foundation stones functions given Greek geometry Hippias Hippocrates Huygens Indiana integral calculus intersection irrational Johann Kings known Laplace later laws Leibniz Leonhard Euler Library machine mathematician Maya mediaeval method needle Newton notation number of decimal obtained Pascal perimeter problem proof proved Ptolemy published quadratrix radius rectangle result Roman Rome rope scientific segment sides Snellius solution squarable square roots squaring the circle straightedge Syracuse theorem theory triangle University Viete Viete's vigesimal Wallis wrote