A Logic Book: Fundamentals of Reasoning
This text moves from a simple to a more complex presentation of logic. It includes coverage of such topics as categorical and sentential logic, informal fallacies, inductive logic, and extended arguments. With a non-technical approach, this book leads students step-by-step through simple demonstrations and then on to more complex material as their comfort level increases. Well-designed examples, sample problems, explanatory charts and diagrams, and exercises abound.
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5A Inferences on the Traditional Square of Opposition
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animals argu arguer argument form artists asserts believe birds categorical form categorical logic categorical statements causal statement cause chapter circle claim compound conclusion conditional conjunction Consider contrapositive deductively valid deﬁned diﬁerent disjunctive syllogism E-form evaluating Example Exercise existential assumption F F F fallacy ﬁnd ﬁrst ﬁve follows FT F TF FT FT FT FT TF human implies inductive reasoning inductive strength inductively strong interpretation invalid justiﬁed living logically equivalent ment Mill’s modus ponens modus tollens moral negation non-P nonempirical statements obversion occurs oﬁicers operators percent person predicate premise premise premise probably question reasoning relevant representative rules of inference sample scientiﬁc sentences shoplifters Simp simple statements smoking square of opposition suﬁicient symbols TF T FT TF TF TF things tion translated true or false truth table truth table method truth-functional truth-functional logic truth-values universe valid argument Venn diagrams