## A Manual of Arithmetic for Teachers, Giving Practical Suggestions for Teaching of Arithmetic in the Elementary Grades and Junior High School: Based on the Wheeler's Graded Arithmetic |

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$1 for given 1/3 board feet 1st Natl addition area of ceiling area of walls Axminster Bank board ft Book wrong bricks cards child Commutative Law compound amt contained cords counting cows require decimal fractions denominator Deposit digits divided dividend divisor Dozen draft drill elementary equals 9 excess face 05 fundamental processes hundred Interest on $200 Jour July long division material mathematical measure mental Method in Arithmetic metic mills rate minuend multiplied no/100 DOLLARS number facts number ideas objects oral payment perch premium primary grades principles problems profit equals pupils Saving Sept share Profit short division square standard scores strips 27 strips per roll student subtraction subtrahend teacher tion tons total cost units watts x=unknown number

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Page 18 - MULTIPLICATION. Multiplication is a short method of addition when the numbers to be added are equal. This is a good definition so far as the fact is concerned, but it does not help the student in obtaining results. Multiplication is the process of taking one number as many times as there are units in another. The

Page 7 - V, X, L, C, D, and M, and the bar (—). I stands for one, V for five, X for ten, L for fifty, C for one hundred, D for five hundred, M for one thousand; and the bar (—), when placed over any letter or group of letters, multiplies the value of the

Page 22 - No notice need be taken of the order of additions and subtractions. When expressions contain all of the signs of the four fundamental operations those of multiplication and division must be performed before those of addition and subtraction, except when otherwise indicated.

Page 25 - and number in attendance. Absences and tardiness. 2. Distributing and collecting materials for class use, as pencils, books, pens, blotters. A monitor for each row can report the number needed for use in his row. 3. Numbering of children at the board or at the seats. Number of seats in each row or

Page 20 - The remainder found by dividing any number by 9 is called the Excess of Nines of that number. The excess of nines of any number is the same as the excess of 9's in the sum of the digits of that number. Thus, 574

Page 28 - Cost per mile of good country roads; cost of local water-works and running expense; the heating of homes and schoolhouses, expenses for furnaces, coal, wood, janitor or engineer. The outlay in running a local mill or- factory, for machinery, wages, insurance, repairs, raw materials, and losses.

Page 21 - 2 The excess of 9's in any product equals the excess in the product of the excesses of the multiplicand and multiplier. When this is true the multiplication may be considered correct. DIVISION. Since division is the

Page 13 - human needs. One of the fundamental needs of the age upon which we are now entering is accurate quantitative thinking in the fields of one's vocation, in the supervision of our many cooperative governmental labors, in our economic thinking with reference to taxation, expenditures, insurance, public utilities, civic improvements, pensions, corporations, and the multitude of other civic and vocational matters.

Page 34 - Careful and complete forms of analysis should be preceded by the working out of many simple oral and written problems till the processes are first clear. The main point is to see that a child is thinking clearly, and this the teacher can find out by definite questioning.

Page 28 - Science. Quantity of weed seeds destroyed by birds. Distance to the sun and moon and size of each. Diameter and circumference of the earth. Power gained by the crowbar, pulley, and rope. Power of engines, windmills, and water-wheels. Comparative weight and value of different metals. Amount of money wasted in alcoholic drinks and tobacco. The age of plants and trees.