A Memoir, Addressed to the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, on the Planting and Rearing of Forest-trees

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James Shalders, 1827 - Tree planting - 40 pages
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Page 39 - ... on to the construction of the whole. For this purpose I searched in various authors for the measure of trees, in girt and height, at different ages, and obtained similar information among my acquaintance. Hence I collected, that the increase in the circumference of trees is generally from about one to two inches annually, and from twelve to eighteen inches the annual increase in height.
Page 16 - I caused the land to be double ploughed first with two horses, and then with four, following in the same furrow, by which means the soil was stirred to the depth of eighteen or twenty inches. I fortunately found the remains of an old marl-pit in the piece, from which I harrowed and spread twenty cart-loads per acre.
Page 18 - This luxuriant growth I attribute to the deep ploughing, to the highly manured state of the land, and to its being constantly kept clean and loose upon the surface by means of the hoe ; and I firmly believe, that when land is in this state, the weather in England can never be too hot for forest-trees.
Page 17 - They took exceedingly well, and many of them made vigorous shoots the first summer ; the second year they nearly covered the ground ; but during this summer their growth has been prodigious : many of the ash trees have made shoots upwards of five feet long, and, upon an average, I think both they and the oaks have increased this year full three feet in height.
Page 4 - ... previous to planting, and of keeping it clean and free from weeds, for some years afterwards. I had myself been long satisfied that this latter method was indispensable to insure success upon land such as is usually selected for planting, and believed most other planters were of the same opinion; but, notwithstanding all that has been said and written on the subject, and though proofs of the utility of trenching and cleaning, and of the loss and disappointment attending a contrary practice are...
Page 20 - Windham that neither trenching, ploughing, nor cleaning was necessary : that just to raise a flag by making a triangular incision, and putting in a seedling plant, and pressing it down with the foot, was quite sufficient to raise, in quick time, a flourishing and valuable plantation ; and that, as to the grass and weeds, they would keep the trees warm, and also keep out the drought ; they would, in fact, be a source of heat and moisture : and all this was to be done for 3l.
Page 19 - This may, and will be thought by many to be a great sum ; but a nurseryman will not plant with good trees, and fill up for three years, under 101. an 'acre, exclusive of ploughing; and observe, that when you manure, you never want to fill up, for all the trees are sure to take, and instead of filling up, you may, after the third year, take up and transplant at least a tenth part of them.
Page 5 - I yearly filled up the vacancies occasioned by death and decay, I found, at the end of four or five years, that all the trees but the Scotch fir, with very few exceptions, were either dead, or in a dying state. I then had all the ground trenched, and all the vacancies filled up with oak, ash, chesnut, elm, and other trees, and I have kept it regularly hoed, and free from weeds ever since. The consequence has been, that the last-mentioned trees have made such a rapid growth...

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