A Move for Better Roads: Essays on Roadmaking and Maintenance and Road Laws, for which Prizes Or Honorable Mention Were Awarded Through the University of Pennsylvania

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Page 295 - ... 2. Always use chips for patching, and for all repairs during the summer months. 3. Never put fresh stones on the road if by cross-picking and a thorough use of the rake the surface can be made smooth and kept at the proper strength and section. 4.
Page 295 - Remember that the rake is the most useful tool in your collection, and that it should be kept close at hand the whole year round. 5. Do not spread large patches of stone over the whole width of the road, but coat the middle, or horse track, first, and, when this has worn in, coat each of the sides in turn. 6.
Page 296 - Recollect that dust becomes mud at the first shower, and that mud forms a wet blanket which will keep a road in a filthy condition for weeks at a time, instead of allowing it to dry in a few hours.
Page 296 - It should be to the roadman what the compass is to the mariner. (16) If you have no ring-gauge, remember MacAdam's advice that any stone you cannot put easily into your mouth should be broken smaller. (17) Use chips, if possible, for binding newly-laid stones together, and remember that road-sweepings, horse-droppings, sods of grass, and other rubbish, when used for this purpose, will ruin the best road ever constructed. (18) Remember that water-worn or rounded stones should never be used upon steep...
Page 148 - ... at once, the under part never consolidates properly, but continues loose and tends to loosen the upper part so as to allow the water to pass through. 10. " Nothing is to be laid on the clean stone on pretence of binding. Broken stone will combine by its own angles into a smooth, solid surface, which cannot be affected by vicissitudes of weather, or displaced by the action of wheels, which will pass over it without a jolt, and consequently without injury.
Page 295 - Always arrange that the bulk of the stones may be laid down before Christmas. (7) In moderately dry weather and on hard roads, always pick up the old surface into ridges six inches apart, and remove all large and projecting stones before applying a new coating.
Page 231 - I have generally made roads three inches higher in the center than I have at the sides, when they are eighteen feet wide ; if the road be smooth and well made, the water will run off very easily in such a slope.
Page 213 - A pernicious custom prevails throughout a large portion of the United States of repairing country roads only at certain seasons of the year. The cost of maintenance would be greatly reduced by frequent repairs, and especially by keeping the side ditches clear and open to their full width and depth, by promptly filling in the ruts, and by supply in some measure the need for skilled road-engineers.
Page i - A Move for Better Roads: Essays on Road-making and Maintenance and Road Laws, for which Prizes or Honorable Mention were Awarded through the University of Pennsylvania by a Committee of Citizens of Philadelphia, with a Synopsis of other Contributions and a Review by the Secretary, LEWIS M. HAUPT, AM, CE ; also an Introduction by WILLIAM H. RHAWN, Chairman of the Committee.
Page 250 - By the improvement of these common roads every branch of our agricultural, commercial and manufacturing industries would be materially benefited. Every article brought to market would be diminished in price; the number of horses necessary as a motive power would be reduced, and by these and other retrenchments millions of dollars would be annually saved to the public.

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