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Emerging A New Tree Biology
Trees and Insects and Mites
Trees and Microorganisms
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A. L. Shigo American beech American elm associated bacteria barrier zone beech beetles birch black arrows borer boundaries branch collar buds callus canker rots cause cavities CODIT codominant stems column of discolored compartmentalization compartments conifers cracks crotch dead branches decay-causing decayed wood develop discolored and decayed discolored wood disease dissected Dutch elm disease eastern white pine energy reserves eucalypts false heartwood flush cut forest fungi fungus grow growth increments growth rings healthy heartwood holes included bark infected wood injury kill living tree microorganisms nonwoody Note organisms outer bark paper birch parenchyma pathogens patterns phloem pine plants problems produce protection zone pruning cuts radial rapidly reaction zone red maple red oak resist root rot sample sapwood soil species spores sprouts stub sugar maple survival Tree Biology trunk collar trunk tissues vascular cambium wall wetwood wound dressing yellow birch young trees