A philosophy of human hope

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Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 31, 1987 - Philosophy - 272 pages
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Few reference works in philosophy have articles on hope. Few also are systematic or large-scale philosophical studies of hope. Hope is admitted to be important in people's lives, but as a topic for study, hope has largely been left to psychologists and theologians. For the most part philosophers treat hope en passant. My aim is to outline a general theory of hope, to explore its structure, forms, goals, reasonableness, and implications, and to trace the implications of such a theory for atheism or theism. What has been written is quite disparate. Some see hope in an individualistic, often existential, way, and some in a social and political way. Hope is proposed by some as essentially atheistic, and by others as incomprehensible outside of one or another kind of theism. Is it possible to think consistently and at the same time comprehensively about the phenomenon of human hoping? Or is it several phenomena? How could there be such diverse understandings of so central a human experience? On what rational basis could people differ over whether hope is linked to God? What I offer here is a systematic analysis, but one worked out in dialogue with Ernst Bloch, Immanuel Kant, and Gabriel Marcel. Ernst Bloch of course was a Marxist and officially an atheist, Gabriel Marcel a Christian theist, and Immanuel Kant was a theist, but not in a conventional way.
 

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Contents

HOPE TALK
7
HOPES OBJECTIVES
11
HOPING DESIRING AND BEING SATISFIED
15
HOPING IMAGINING AND PROJECTING
25
HOPING POSSIBILITY DESIRABILITY AND BELIEF
29
HOPE AS FEELING
33
HOPEIN
37
Towards two kinds of desire
42
Finitude and alienation
140
Types of ultimate hope qua types of desiring
141
Fundamental hope
144
its formal characteristics
149
Concluding position
152
ONTOLOGIES
155
The willnature model
156
The intersubjective model
157

Objections
44
HOPE SOCIETY AND HISTORY
47
INTRODUCTION
53
ULTIMATE HOPE AND FUNDAMENTAL HOPE PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION
55
Context of the fundamental
61
Fundamental hope
64
ERNST BLOCKS FULL HOPE EXPLOSIVE TOTAL AND INCOGNITO
67
Utopian function
69
explosive total incognito
77
Total
78
Incognito
79
IMMANUEL KANT AND THE HIGHEST GOOD
83
Hope for perpetual peace
84
Hope for the highest good as the individuals deserved happiness
86
Virtue
87
Deserved happiness
89
Hope for the ethical commonwealth and the kingdom of God
95
Review
99
GABRIEL MARCEL I HOPE IN THEE FOR US
103
Captivity despair desire and hope
104
Hope for salvation hope for us
108
Hopings ontological import
114
Social hope
116
Hope in thee
117
Reasons and hoping
121
By way of definitions
124
Contributions to notions of ultimate hope and fundamental hope
127
Fundamental hope
129
Absolute hope
131
ULTIMATE HOPE AND FUNDAMENTAL HOPE CONCLUDING POSITION
133
Some complex forms of hopes objectives
135
modesty and transcendence
138
Alienation
139
Ontological bearing of the two models
163
Epistemological bearing of the two models
165
Convergencies and corollaries
167
IMPLICATIONS OF HOPE
169
Trust implied by sound ultimate hopes desiring
172
Summary
175
Implications of fundamental hope
176
Understandings of hopes trust
177
Implications of hopes trust
179
Absolute trust
186
Integration and soundness
188
Summary
190
BLOCHS ATHEISM AND ONTOLOGY A SKETCH
191
KANT AND BELIEF IN GOD
197
Belief in adequate causality
199
Specification of the postulate as God
201
Faith as trust
204
Nature and history
205
MARCEL AND ABSOLUTE THOU
207
Absolute hope
208
Implication ontology and indication
210
CONCLUSION
215
What sort of a future is believed open?
216
The kingdom of God without God?
217
organ of apprehension?
218
EPILOGUE ON SOME RELIGIOUS AND THEOLOGICAL THOUGHT
223
eschatology
227
Theology of hope and liberation theology
230
John Macquarrie
235
Kung Evans Buber
243
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
249
INDEX
261
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