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Adaptability of Grade Separations
Arrangement of Ramps
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1-way ramps 3-lane road abutment added lane alinement approach roads arrangement assumed design speed barrier curb bridge cloverleaf construction cost cross road cross slope curvature deceleration lane desirable direct connections direct left turns divided highway drivers edge of pavement entering entrance curve exit curve exit turns gradients grading plan hazardous inner loop interchange interchange roads intersecting roads intersection area Intersections at Grade island left-turning movements length located lower left major road median strip ment minimum minor road necessary operation outer connection overcrossing paths pavement width percent pier quadrants radii ramp design ramp pavement ramp terminals reverse curves right turns right-of-way roadway rotary Rotary Intersections separation with ramps service roads shown in figure sight distance signs span speed-change lanes superelevation T-type taper terminal curves terminal islands tion topography traffic density traffic lanes traffic signal control traffic volumes trucks turning movements turning traffic undercrossing vertical curve widened