A Practical Treatise on Metallurgy: Lead, silver, zinc, cadmium, tin, mercury, bismuth, antimony, nickel, arsenic, gold, platinum, sulphur

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Longmans, Green, and Company, 1868 - Metallurgy
 

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Contents

Illustrations of the American Hearth Process
74
New Cupola Furnace
80
Decomposition of Raw Ores in Cupola Furnaces
82
Illustrations of the Precipitation Process
98
The Roasting of the Ores
114
Illustrations of Smelting Ores Poor in Lead
121
Treatment of Oxidised Ores and Products
161
Reduction of Sulphate of Lead
168
Reduction of Litharge in Cupola Furnaces
176
Reduction of Litharge in Scotch Furnaces
182
Purification of the Lead
188
The Annual Production of Lead
200
SILVER
201
Synopsis of Processes for the Extraction of Silver from
206
Illustrations of these Processes 458
207
Production of Argentiferous Lead Raw Lead
216
Treatment of Argentiferous Lead Ores
221
Illustrations of the Raw Smelting Process in Cupola
228
Illustrations of Desilverising Matt by fusion with Lead
234
Desilverising Matt by Lead Products and Copper
245
Apparatus for Pattinsons Process
260
High Thirds System of Crystallisation
264
Illustrations of the High System of Working with
271
Manipulations of the Cupelling Process
278
Illustrations of the German Cupelling Process
287
Illustrations of the English Cupelling Process
300
Refining in Reverberatory Furnaces
307
Refining in Crucibles
314
Manipulations of the Amalgamation Process
320
Amalgamation of Speiss
332
Mr Crookess Process of Extraction by means
347
Treatment of Silver Ores and Argentiferous Products
364
Augustins Process for the Treatment of Speiss
375
Apparatus for Extracting Silver with Warm Water
389
Extraction of Silver by Means of Hyposulphites
391
CHAPTER III
402
b Dividing the Calcined or Roasted Ores
420
Distillation of Zinc
422
The Belgian Method of Extracting Zinc
428
Retort and Adapters used on the Continent
432
Illustrations of the Belgian Process
434
Roasting the Concentrated Tin Schlich
476
I39 Bruntons Calciner
481
Washing the Roasted Schlich
482
Furnace for Remelting Slags
496
Reduction of Tin Ores in Reverberatory Furnaces
499
MERCURY
504
Synopsis of Processes for the Extraction of Mercury
505
I53 J54 Hi1hners Distilling Furnace
519
BISMUTH 1
538
Liquation of Crude Antimony in Crucibles
543
Furnace for Liquating Antimony used at Malbosc France
545
Production of Regulus of Antimony direct from Ores
549
Concentration Smelting of Nickel Ores for the Pro
556
Illustrations of the Smelting of Arsenical Nickel Ores
562
Illustrations of the Process of Extracting Nickel from
576
Illustrations of the Processes for the Extraction
582
Illustrations of the Production of Metallic Arsenic
588
Illustrations of the Production of Arsenious Acid
596
Working Arsenical Pyrites used at Ribas
600
Production of Coloured Arsenic Glass Realgar
602
Production of Realgar from Arsenious Acid and Sulphur
607
GOLD
609
Section in the Clunes Gold Mining Field Australia
615
Synopsis of Processes for the Extraction of Gold from
616
Production of Argentiferous Gold
622
Extraction of Gold by Washing Weathered Pyrites
630
Apparatus for Pressing the Auriferous Mercury
633
Calverts Method of treating Auriferous quartz
645
Extraction of Iron Tin Antimony Arsenic and Lead
658
Parting of Gold in Platinum Vessels
664
Refining Gold used at the Lower Hartz
667
Separation of Gold from Copper
674
Processes for the Extraction of Platinum from its Ores
681
Furnace for Melting Platinum Ores
686
CHAPTER XIII
689
Synopsis of Processes for the Extraction of Sulphur
690
Liquation of the Sulphur in Apparatus
707
Covered Heap for Liquating Sulphur
709
Extraction of Sulphur from Iron Pyrites and Pyritic
714
Supplement
724

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Page 612 - ... situations, the lower hills and valleys are entirely free from them ; frequently a large section of the country will be enclosed from two high ridges capped by deposits, and diverging from a common point; in the intervening space will be seen many secondary ridges, sometimes fifteen or eighteen hundred feet high, formed entirely of the older rocks, no traces of deposits being found on their surface, nor in the ravines that lead from them.
Page 694 - ... the cane or beet root, but to extract only the crystallizable sugar contained in that juice, and to leave whatever else it contains in the cells. To accomplish this purpose, the sugar cane or beet roots are cut into small slices and put into a number of vats, •which are connected by pipes running from the bottom of one vat to the top of the next succeeding. Water of a certain temperature, and of a quantity proportioned to the weight of the cane or beet root in the vats, is mixed with the material...
Page 611 - The stratified rocks of the highest antiquity, such as the oldest gneiss or quartz rocks, have very seldom borne gold : but the sedimentary accumulations which followed, or the Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous (particularly the first of these three), have been the deposits which, in the tracts where they have undergone a metamorphosis or change of structure by the...
Page 612 - ... region, in that part of the country which I have examined. They are found in a belt of land from thirty to sixty miles broad, and running parallel with the axis of the range ; and, from facts that I have ascertained from others, I have no doubt but that they exist throughout all the goldbearing region, both north and south.
Page 614 - ... the surrounding rocks. At other points the whole series consists of conglomerates and soft friable sandstone. In the lower strata, quartzose conglomerates, with an argillaceous cement, or loose quartzose gravel, always prevails, with large boulders of quartz, weighing frequently two or three tons, having their surface worn smooth and the angles rounded. The deposits of these heavier rocks have been formed on spots which were evidently lower than the level of the surrounding rocks; whilst on those...
Page 613 - On the top of the hills and the crests of the ridges, where they generally attain their greatest thickness, we find them composed of many distinct strata lying nearly horizontal, and conformable with each other, and generally also with the surface of the underlying rock. In these situations, the most superficial stratum is composed of a mass of extremely hard conglomerate, containing principally trachytic rocks, imbedded in a hard argillaceous cement. It is this hard stratum that has undoubtedly...
Page 611 - T"he stratified rocks of the highest antiquity, such as the oldest gneiss or quartz rocks, have seldom borne gold ; but the sedimentary accumulations which followed, or the Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous (particularly the first of these three), have been the deposits which, in the tracts where they have undergone a metamorphosis or change of structure, by the influence of igneous agency or other causes, have been the chief sources whence gold has been derived.
Page 614 - As regards the mineral riches of these deposits, it would appear that gold is found wherever they exist. The ravines coming from the ridges on which they are found are generally extremely rich, and always contain gold, even in places where the deposits themselves have been worked without success. In some places where they have been worked, as much as thirty thousand dollars have been taken from a claim of fifteen feet square ; and there are many instances where tea and fifteen thousand dollars have...
Page 611 - The strike of the beds in that section to which my observations have been confined (between the Stanislaus > and Yuba rivers) is extremely uniform, being from 5° to 10° W. of N. and E. of S. The extent of the diluvial deposits is commensurate, or nearly so, with that of the gold-hearing region, in that part of the country which I have examined.
Page 473 - Before conducting the reader to the nboveground works at the Cornish mines, we must speak of the stream-tin. This kind of ore is disseminated, both in the alluvium which covers the gentle slopes of the hills adjoining the rich tin-lodes, and also in that which fills the valleys that wind round the base of such hills. The most important of these scattered pebbles — for such they may be deemed — are near St Just and St Austell. The works are called stream-works, because flowing water is the chief...

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