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Understanding Trauma Memory in Childhood
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ability activity adult alterations amnesia amygdala aspects assess associated autobiographical memory behavior body's brain stem Bremner catecholamine cerebral cortex child sexual abuse childhood sexual abuse childhood trauma chronic clinical cognitive complex conscious awareness cortex cortical cortisol demonstrated dissociative disorders dissociative response dopamine dysfunction dysregulation effects emotional experience emotional feelings emotional memory emotional responses emotional/physiological ence encoded evoked experienced explicit memory extreme fear Fisler function Hart Herman hippocampus hormone hyperarousal hypermnesia hypothalamus impact implicit individual individual's integrated intrusive involved Kluft Kolk & Fisler learning and memory LeDoux limbic system mediated memory processes memory systems neocortex nervous system neurological neurons neurophysiological neurotransmitter nonconscious norepinephrine occur opioid past experience perception physical physiological posttraumatic prefrontal cortex primary PTSD recall receptors remember reported retained retrieval schemas self-identity sensory specific Spiegel startle response stimuli stress response studies survivors symptoms Terr tion tional traumatic events traumatic experience traumatic memory victims