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abstract Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount applied argument Arnold Toynbee Bagehot Bank of England banker bill-brokers buyers Cairnes capital and labour cash cash-reserve chapter circumstances Cliffe Leslie commerce commodities competition conception considerations criticism cultivation demand distinction division of labour economic inquiry economic rent Economic Studies economists effects employed English essay exchange expenses of production facts gold greater historical method important improvement individual industry influence interest investigation Jevons JOHN ELLIOTT CAIRNES John Stuart Mill land landlord laws less Lombard Street London Malthus manufactures marginal utility means ment Mill Mill's moral natural liberty normal price obtained original perhaps period Political Economy possessed practical present Principles of Political produce profits quantity recognised regarded result Ricardo seems sellers social reform society soils statistical supply tended theoretical theory of value Toynbee trade utility wages Wealth of Nations workman writings wrote
Page 14 - The fourth and last maxim may be called that of economy ,- for, according to it, "every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as little as possible, over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the state.
Page 14 - THE annual labour of every nation is the fund which originally supplies it with all the necessaries and conveniences of life which it annually consumes, and which consist always either in the immediate produce of that labour, or in what is purchased with that produce from other nations.
Page 15 - ... it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds it at the top for receiving the head ; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations ; to put it on is a peculiar business, to whiten the pins is another ; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper ; and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which, in some manufactories, are all performed by distinct hands, though in others the same man will...
Page 44 - Population invariably increases where the means of subsistence increase, unless prevented by some very powerful and obvious checks. 3. These checks, and the checks which repress the superior power of population, and keep its effects on a level with the means of subsistence, are all resolvable into moral restraint, vice, and misery.
Page 26 - The gold and silver money which circulates in any country may very properly be compared to a highway, which, while it circulates and carries to market all the grass and corn of the country, produces itself not a single pile of either.
Page 13 - The maxim of equality enjoins • that the " subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities ; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state."- ,The second maxim is that of I certainty.
Page 7 - All systems either of preference or of restraint, therefore, being thus completely taken away, the obvious and simple system of natural liberty establishes itself of its own accord. Every man, as long as he does not violate the laws of justice, is left perfectly free to pursue his own interest his own way, and to bring both his industry and capital into competition with those of any other man, or order of men.
Page 11 - What is the species of domestic industry which his capital can employ, and of which the produce is likely to be of the greatest value, every individual, it is evident, can, in his local situation, judge much better than any statesman or lawgiver can do for him.
Page 86 - I now had opinions; a creed, a doctrine, a philosophy; in one among the best senses of the word, a religion; the inculcation and diffusion of which could be made the principal outward purpose of a life.