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B NONSYMMETRIC CASE
EXTENT OF IONOSPHERE REQUIRED
5 other sections not shown
absorption aircraft Airy integral analysis angle of arrival antenna gain approximation Argand Diagram branch caustic surface computed concentric earth concentric ionosphere convenient Cornu spiral cusp derived determined diffraction earth and ionosphere earth's radius earth's surface elevated caustic elevation angle equation IV-4 experimental program F layer F region field strength Figure 19 focusing gain focusing region fourth power term free space free space loss frequency geometric focusing Geometric Optics Gain given by equation high gain hop F horizon focusing horizon-limited illustrated in Figure incidence angle integral in equation ionogram ionosphere required ionospheric curvature Ionospheric Distortion Required ionospheric extent required launch angle measured negative angles Noontime Disturbance observed one-hop perpendicular physical optics plane plotted polar pattern positive angles Propagation Loss Radio Propagation Radio Waves ray spacing receiver reflection point Section shown in Figure shows specular reflection spherical Substituting symmetric tilted ionosphere transmitter variation vertical vicinity wavelength