A Study of Hereditary and Nutritionally-induced Muscular Dystrophy in Chicks and Turkeys
The effects of Vitamin E, santoquin, methionine, arginine and unsaturated fat on the development of muscular dystrophy in avian species were studied. Attention was focused upon possible differences between hereditary and nutritionally-induced types of muscular dystrophy. In experiment 1, breast muscle from White Leghorn chocks fed a diet deficient in Vitamin E and containing 1% added arginine displayed the highest activity of succinic dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase and was associated with high activity of glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) and glycogen content. Feeding santoquin resulted in depressing the breast muscle succinic dehydrogenase activity at 2 weeks and the glycogen content at 5 weeks. Adequate vitamin E in the diet was related to the lowest heart rate at 2 weeks of age. In experiment 2, breast muscles from New Hampshire muscular dystrophy strain chicks fed diets deficient in both vitamin E and methionine with or without 1% added arginine displayed macroscopic evidence of muscular dystrophy, and had lower activity succinic dehydrogenase and GOT. However, leg muscle succinic dehydrogenase activity and glycogen content were higher on the same diet. Chicks maintained on a diet deficient in both vitamin E and methionine and containing 1% added arginine for 6 weeks, then fed the same diet but adequate in vitamin E for an additional 2 weeks, showed an elevation in the activity of succinic dehydrogenase and GOT in the breast muscle. In experiment 3, Broad Breasted Bronze turkey male poults fed a diet deficient in both vitamin E and methionine showed a decrease in the activity of succinic dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, GOT and glycogen content in the breast muscle. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase and GOT and glycogen level in the liver and serum aldolase were depressed in birds fed a diet deficient in vitamin E and methionine compared to those on a diet adequate in vitamin E and methionine. Serum GOT and liver succinic dehydrogenase activities were elevated in birds fed a diet deficient in vitamin E and methionine. The highest heart rate occurred in birds fed a diet deficient in vitamin E and methionine.
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2l days Activity and Glycogen activity of breast activity of succinic added arginine adequate in vitamin aldolase amino acids Body Weight breast muscle Breasted Bronze Turkeys Broad Breasted Bronze chicks fed diet coefficient of correlation corn oil cytochrome _c cytochrome c oxidase Day-old Chicks days of incubation deficient in methionine deficient in vitamin diet adequate diet containing Dietary Vitamin different P 0.05 Dystrophic Embryos Effect of Dietary enzyme activity fed a diet glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase glycogen content groups fed diets Hampshire chickens Hampshire Normal heart rate l0 days leg muscle linoleic acid liver succinic dehydrogenase Meth mg of tissue muscle and liver muscular dystrophy strain nine on Enzyme normal embryos normal strain oxidized per second poults fed diet safflower oil santoquin second per mg showed succinic dehydro succinic dehydrogenase activity tissue protein tocopherol transaminase unsaturated fat vitamin E deficiency weeks of age weight and gain