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22 inches active adjustment apparatus average time-records behavior Black-and-White Female blind animals Blind Male blind rats changed comparison control cage coordination Door fell errors evidence experience experimenter factor FEMALE I FEMALE Female III fifth food box given gnawing group average habit Jumped east last three columns latch learned to jump learning process lower Male III Male IV MAXIMAL TIME-RECORDS maximum maze minimal records MINIMUM normal animals Normal Black-and-White Rats normal rats normal white rats number of animals number of trials olfaction olfactory pathway PERCENTAGE OF MINIMAL plane position problem box Problem III rats on Problem reactions Refused to jump scrambled slightly Second trial seemed short and fell shorter show the number Showing the average side sixth trial slow snout stimulus struck platform successful TABLE SHOWING PERCENTAGE tactual third three columns show tion total number trained animals trials perfect untrained rats vibrissa vision visual impulses West
Page i - I desire to express here my obligation to Professor James R. Angell for constant assistance and encouragement. I am particularly indebted to Professor John B. Watson, under whose immediate direction the experimental work here presented was undertaken and carried out. My thanks are due also to Professor Harvey Carr for suggestions and criticisms of the manuscript, and to Miss Ethel Chamberlain, who assisted me during a portion of the experimentation.
Page 73 - up to a certain distance the rat was able to step across with little difficulty ; and the contact of the snout or vibrissae with platform II. seemed to be the essential stimulus in the majority of cases.
Page 99 - She used her vibrissae to locate the platform."11 (Another blind rat.) Her conclusions are given on page 99. " Touch as a partially controlling factor does, however, enter into the early adjustments of the bl nd animals, since they will more readily form the habit of jumping if the snout or vibrissae are stimulated by the platform to which the animal has to jump. This latter statement applies in some degree at least even to animals possessing vision. Once the habit is formed, however the initial...
Page 81 - Would not cross after five inches. 4* 5 5* 64 74 84 91 ioi u4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Good. Stepped across at five inches. Very slow. Hopped after stretching across. Sprang across. Good. First trial, heels on angle, others perfect. Same procedure as above. First trial, scrambled slightly. Getting tired and slow. Scrambled in two trials and in fourth trial did not aim right; struck wall at northeast; fell hard but it did not frighten her. Commenced eating at once when placed on food platform.
Page 77 - II 12 13 i i 5 5 5 5 Went clear over. Struck and slid off east. First trial, overshot; second, scrambled, others perfect. Good; last trial, struck and slid off. First two, a little short, others perfect. As above. (Not so active. Muscular soreness from unusual exertion of yesterday ?) 11/17/07 12 H 15 5 5 5 Three perfect, two scrambled. First trial, short and fell. First and second trials, a little short. 11/18/07 12 14 15 5 5 5 All good.
Page 83 - After dozens of trials the experimenter gave up in despair. d. On Anosmic Rats. To determine accurately that vision and not olfaction furnished the sensory control of the adjustment, two anosmic rats were tested upon the apparatus.1 The method of training of this animal was the same as that •with the blind rats — the distance being increased by half an inch at a time. The following are extracts from the notes taken on his behavior: Anosmic Rat I on Problem IV.
Page 94 - TRIALS. 1/1/08 22 5 First and second, to left of center of platform; third, fourth and fifth, good. 1/2/08 16 8 5 8 First, long, went over platform; second, struck but slid off far edge; third and fourth, good; fifth, perfect, struck squarely. First, entirely over and struck opposite wall of cabinet; second, third and fourth, shorter but entirely over; fifth, like first; sixth, seventh and eighth, entirely over.
Page 49 - Neither of the two females mad« a minimal record during the series, and neither Male I nor Male II made a maximal record during the series. b. On Normal Black-and-White Rats. This group had also been reduced in number. Females I and II died at the end of tests upon Problem Box II. Table X and the curve on Plate III show the records of the two remaining animals. TABLE X.
Page 92 - One trial, perfect. down so soon. These rats had not been at work at the test as long as the white animals which had been trained upon the old apparatus and retrained upon the new. c. On Anosmic Rat. The anosmic rat had just reached the necessary maximum of 22 inches before the test with apparatus rotated could be made. He had been given two trials with the apparatus changed.