## A study of spread-F echoes from the ionosphere |

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### Contents

CONE ANGLE DETERMINATION | 35 |

RADIO STAR SCINTILLATION AND SPREADF | 66 |

SOME COMMENTS ON THE FORMATION OF SPREADF | 87 |

### Common terms and phrases

after-effect function amplitude analysis antenna Atmos autocorrelation function average backscatter bandwidth Booker and Pitteway Chapter charged particles cone angle Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory Cornell University correlation function determined diffracted Distributions for Leading ECHO 300 Km EDGE OF ECHO electron density equation equatorial spread estimate F-layer F-region fading record field-aligned irregularities frequency fringe visibility geomagnetic heights high latitudes hole interferometer system ionization ionograms taken ionosonde ionosphere Leading Edge lobe rate magnetic field measurements median Middle of Spread-F MlDDLE OF ECHO normal number of independent pattern phase angle Phys plane wave polar diagram power spectrum Probability Density Distributions radiation radio star scintillation radio wave Ratcliffe ratio Rayleigh distribution received region sampling distribution sampling interval scattered signal shown in Figure solutions spacing spectrum of plane specular reflection spread in range stationary statistical steady components steady signal STUDY OF SPREAD-F temperature theoretical two-dimensional wave field wavelengths width zero