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ADMINISTERING A USER CHARGE
THE SINGAPORE EXPERIENCE
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administering a user admission charge annual cost Area Licensing auto travel auto usage automatic identification system automatic vehicle identification average cost benefit car pooling commuters congested travel congestion costs considered costs of travel costs of trip decentralization decrease direct charging direct road pricing discussed drivers economic effects efficiency entry charge environmental estimates goal Greater London Council impacts income increased indirect individuals Jersey bus Kulash marginal cost means of charging meter number of travelers OECD off-vehicle on-vehicle operating optimal user charge Park and Ride parking controls percent physical restraint possible pricing point pricing scheme private costs problems restraint scheme restricted zone result revenue road pricing theory road usage roadway pricing Smeed Panel social costs speed supplementary licensing techniques time-based toll booths total cost traffic congestion Traffic Restraint traffic volumes transit Transport Economics Transportation Research Board trip lengths trip maker urban