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Introduc t ion 2 The Morphology of SpreadF
The Occurrence of SpreadF
k Instrumentation 5 Possible Mechanisms Responsible for SpreadF
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adiabatic lapse rate angle of arrival antennas appears back scatter Booker charged particles correlation critical frequency cylinder Dagg difference diffuse diurnal double traces drift motion earth's magnetic field Eckersley effect electric field F layer F region F trace foF2 frequency type spread-F geomagnetic gion gradient HIGH LATITUDE Huancayo ionograms ion density ionization iono ionosonde ionosphere irregu irregularities latitude stations layer maximum low latitude spread-F magnetic field lines magnetic latitudes main trace Martyn McNicol and Webster mechanism MEGACYCLES multiplet neutral observed occurrence of spread-F oscilloscope phase path plasma frequency polar probing frequency propagation radiation Radio Star Scintillations range type spread-F Rayleigh scatter Reflection from Horizontal returning echo Ryle and Hewish satellite traces Shimazaki 1959 signal Singleton 1957 spread condition spread echoes spread-F occurrence studies of spread-F suggest sunspot cycle surrounding medium tion transmitter turbulence type and frequency Uyeda velocity vertical incidence virtual height versus wave length Webster and Bowman