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acetic acetic acid action alcohol alkaline alum alumina amount bast bast fibres beater beating bed-plate bleaching powder boiler boiling calcium calcium hypochlorite calenders carbonate caustic soda cells cellulose characteristic Chem chemical chlorine composition compound condition consists constituents containing cotton cylinders dilute disintegration dissolved drum drying effect esparto evaporation fibrous filter flax gelatinised gelatinous groups half-stuff heat hydrate hydrochloric acid hydrolysis hypochlorite important insoluble iodine jute length lignocellulose lignone lime liquor machine manufacture means mechanical method microscope mills mixture nitrates non-cellulose obtained ordinary oxidation oxidised p.ct paper-making passes pipe plates precipitate prepared present pressure proportion qualities quantity rags raw materials reaction reagents removed residue resistance roll rosin salts sheet sodium sodium carbonate sodium sulphite soluble solution starch steam strainer straw strength structure stuff substance sulphate sulphuric acid surface tank temperature tion tissue treatment washing weight wire wire-cloth wood pulp yield
Page 166 - For further information on this subject, the reader is referred to the article
Page 234 - The paper machine of the present day, with all its ingenious improvements, differs but little in principle from that originally constructed by Fourdrinier. It consists essentially of an endless mould of wire-cloth, on to which the prepared pulp flows, and on which a continuous sheet of paper is formed.
Page 355 - From these it rises in streams of bubbles, stirring up some of the precipitate or mud from previous operations which lies on the bottom of the tank.
Page 220 - ... particularly for the surface loading of photographic papers. It is usual, except in making papers of the very highest quality, to add to the pulp in the beater a small quantity of relatively cheap mineral loading material, such as china clay or "pearl hardening." This is not to be regarded as merely an adulteration, since it serves to fill up the pores of the paper and to make a closer texture, more evenly absorbent of printers...
Page 414 - BRASS. SPECIAL MACHINES FOR UNSORTED PAPER, These Machines do not grind, cut up, or wet the fibre, and, as the state of beating and refining is unaltered, neither colour nor sizing being affected, and impurities not touched, " Broke " can be re-used for the same quality of paper again.
Page 246 - ... great utility. It is simple in construction, small in cost, takes up little room, and is easily repaired. When placed to receive the washings from the beaters or paper-machine, the pulp saved, if kept clean, can always be re-used. A is a conical drum which is covered with wire-cloth, and it is made to revolve slowly by suitable gearing. The water enters by the pipe B, which -is perforated, as shown, and passes through the meshes of the gauze, while the pulp gradually finds its way to the wider...
Page 220 - Kaolin, besides being employed for porcelain, is utilised in the paper and soap industries. It is sold in the form of large lumps of a white or yellowish white colour. It fills up the pores of the paper and gives a smoother and more absorbent surfaceğ.
Page 9 - The solutions of cuprammonium compounds generally, in the presence of excess of ammonia, attack cellulose rapidly in the cold, forming a series of gelatinous hydrates, passing ultimately into fully soluble forms. The solutions of the pure cuprammonium hydroxide are more active in producing these effects than the solutions resulting from the decomposition of a copper salt with excess of ammonia. Two methods are in common use for the preparation of these solutions, which should contain 10 to 15 per...
Page 41 - It must be again noted that this high degree of resistance to hydrolysis (alkaline) and oxidation belongs only to cotton cellulose and to the group of which it is the type, and which includes the celluloses of flax, rhea, and hemp. A large number of celluloses, on the other hand, are distinguished by considerable reactivity, due to the presence of ' free ' CO groups, and are therefore more or less easily hydrolysed and oxidised.