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according Agric Alder amongst annual rings appear bark beam become Beech Birch Bois Boxwood branches broad-leaved trees callus cambium cause Cedar cells centre Chestnut colour Conifers cross-section decay density diameter direction Ebony elasticity Eucalypts False Acacia fibres figure figured wood French Guiana fungi growth Guiana hard Hartig heart-wood hence Hornbeam Horse Chestnut inasmuch inches large rays latter layers less lignin lines Maple Mathieu moisture Noerdlinger 1859 oblique Padouk parenchyma pieces Pine pith pith-side plane plank PLATE Poplar pore-ring pores produced radial section resin resin-canals resistance ring-boundaries sap-wood Sapotaceae Satin-wood says Scots Pine season seen sheaths side Silver Fir silver-grain smell soft-tissue species specimens split Spruce stem structure substance surface tangential section tannin test-piece tests thin timber tissue tracheids transverse section trunk tyloses vertical vessels visible Walnut weight width wood wood-fibres wound zone
Page 149 - Even with faulty — we do not say absolutely bad — material, if construction and dimensions are right, and good varnish is successfully applied, a fairly good instrument will result ; but though the wood, and also construction and dimensions be perfect, the result will be astonishingly bad if the instrument be badly varnished.
Page 160 - Water exists in wood in two conditions: (a) as free water contained in the cell cavities, and (b) as water absorbed in the cell walls. When wood contains just enough water to saturate the cell walls, it is said to be at the "fiber saturation point." Any water in excess of this which the wood may contain is in the form of free water in the cell cavities. Removal of the free water has no apparent effect upon the properties of the wood except to reduce its weight, but as soon as any of...
Page 141 - I have observed in a great number of my experiments, that the modulus of torsion bears a near relation to the weight of the wood when dry, whatever may be the species ; and that for practical purposes we may obtain the deflection (8) from the specific gravity (s).
Page 160 - Any water in excess of this which the wood may contain is in the form of free water in the cell cavities. Removal of the free water has no apparent effect upon the properties of the wood except to reduce its weight, but as soon as any of the absorbed water is removed the wood begins to shrink.
Page 158 - ... in the use of the wood. The contraction of the pith rays parallel to the length of "the board is probably one of the causes of the small amount of longitudinal shrinkage which has been observed in boards. The smaller shrinkage of the pith rays along the radius of the log (the length of the pith ray) opposing the shrinkage of the fibres in this direction becomes one of the causes of the second great troubles in wood seasoning, namely, the difference in the amount of the shrinkage along the radius...
Page 81 - These, which are so small as to be scarcely visible to the naked eye, as soon as deposited by the queen ant, who drops them at random in her progress through the nest, are taken charge of by the workers, who immediately seize them and carry them in their...
Page 232 - Effect of moisture upon the strength and stiffness of wood. US Dept.
Page 160 - Shrinkage as aflected by direction of annual rings; approximately twice as great tangentially as radially. cell cavities. Removal of the free water has no apparent effect upon the properties of the wood except to reduce its weight, but as soon as any of the absorbed water is removed the wood begins to shrink. Since the free water is the first to be removed, shrinkage does not begin, as a general rule, until the fiber saturation point is reached.
Page 230 - Note on the Contraction and Warping which takes place in Pinus longifolia timber while seasoning. By BS PEAESON, IFS, ETc.
Page 169 - Whether or not poles or crossarms are to receive preservative treatment, there can be no doubt that it invariably pays to season them properly before putting them into service. Under ordinary conditions, the life of a well-seasoned untreated pole should be at least 30 per cent greater than that of an untreated green pole, and the life of crossarms is increased in about the same proportion through proper seasoning.