A Text-book on Electro-magnetism and the Construction of Dynamos, Volume 1

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Page 23 - That when we have external neutrality, or no apparent magnetism, the molecules, or their polarities, arrange themselves so as to satisfy their mutual attraction by the shortest path, and thus form a complete closed circuit of attraction.
Page 24 - ... direction as regards the piece of steel, or a south pole if rotated in the opposite direction. Also, that in evident magnetism, we have still a symmetrical arrangement, but one whose circles of attraction are not completed except through an external armature joining both poles. 6. That we have permanent magnetism when the molecular rigidity, as in tempered steel, retains them in a given direction, and transient magnetism whenever the molecules rotate in comparative freedom, as in soft iron.
Page 23 - ... 1. That each molecule of a piece of iron, steel, or other magnetic metal is a separate and independent magnet, having its two poles and distribution of magnetic polarity exactly the same as its total evident magnetism when noticed upon a steel bar-magnet. 2. That each molecule, or its polarity, can be rotated in either direction upon its axis by torsion, stress, or by physical forces such as magnetism and electricity. 3. That the inherent polarity or magnetism of each molecule is a constant quantity...
Page 158 - AC in the accompanying illustration), their resultant will be represented in magnitude and direction by the diagonal AR drawn from the intersection of the two component forces.

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