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The Duct Theory
The Scattering Theory
Observations of Equatorial SpreadF
16 other sections not shown
angle antenna backscattered backscattered power Booker bottom panel bounce point broken curve calculations caustic Cohen and Bowles constant values Contour maps Contour plots Cornu spiral decibels direction of alignment duct earth's magnetic field earth's surface elements of volume equatorial spread-F field line field-aligned irregularities Figure 1A fluctuation of ionization frequency is 50 Fresnel length Fresnel zone Geophys gyroradius Huancayo incoherent scattering inner scale integral ionic gyroradius ionization density ionogram ionosonde Jicamarca km are shown Kuriki Kwajalein locations macroscopic element magnetic equator magnetic meridian maps of received mean square fluctuation medium-scale regime Nielson Oahu observations outer scale parameters path loss perpendicular plots of PQ PQ separated propagation path radar Rarotonga received power refraction scale height scattered rays shown in Figure small-scale regime solid curves spectral specular scattering Tanohata top panel transequatorial propagation transmitter and receiver tube of irregularities values of PQ vector vhf band virtual height