## A Treatise on Hydraulics |

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### Common terms and phrases

approximate aqueduct atmospheric pressure axis bend Calc calculated cast iron cent channel coefficient of discharge constant cross section cubic feet cubic foot Darcy density depth Diam difference of level disc eddies edge elementary streams end contractions energy equal equation experiments feet of water feet per second float fluid formula free surface frictional resistance ft.-lbs gallons gauge given greater Hamilton Smith head lost height Hence horizontal hydraulic gradient inches of mercury increases incrusted inlet kilograms length Loch Katrine loss of head mass centre mean velocity measured meter metre miles motion normal notch observations orifice Osborne Reynolds plane plate pound pump quantity radius ratio reservoir resultant pressure sharp-edged slope sluice square foot square inch stream lines surface velocity temperature Values of f valve variation varies velocity curve velocity of approach vertical viscosity volume weir width

### Popular passages

Page 45 - ... an excess of pressure against the entire converging surface which it meets, and that, conversely, as it enters an enlargement (see fig.

Page 262 - Bonk mediatclX in contact with the rough bottom and sides of the channel is retarded, and its centrifugal force is insufficient to balance the pressure due to the greater depth at the outside of the bend. It thereFic.

Page 125 - Y is the compression ratio and y is the ratio of the specific heats at constant pressure and constant volume of the working fluid.

Page 135 - Consequently, the portion of surface which succeeds the first will be rubbing, not against stationary water, but against water partially moving in its own direction, and cannot therefore experience so much resistance from it.

Page 261 - Eng., 1879, p. 456) that the usual supposition is that the water if tending to go forwards in a straight line rushes against the outer bank and scours it, at the same time creating deposits at the inner bank. That view is very far from a complete account of the matter, and Professor Thomson gave a much more ingenious account of the action at the bend, which he completely confirmed by experiment.

Page 33 - ... the ratio of the ovendry weight of a sample to the weight of a volume of water equal to the volume of the sample at some specific moisture content, as green, air-dry, or ovendry.

Page 51 - FIG. 36. the total head for each stream line is the same. Hence, if by any slow radial motion portions of the water strayed from one stream line to another, they would take freely the velocities propel to their new positions under the action of the existing fluid pressures only.

Page 120 - In particular, the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures which would be exerted by each of the components if it alone occupied the total volume — a law which was discovered by Dalton, and is known as Dalton's law of partial pressures.

Page 46 - ... conversely, as it enters an enlargement (see Fig. 10) a relief of pressure is experienced by the entire diverging surface of the pipe. Further it is commonly assumed that, when passing through a contraction (see Fig.

Page 135 - ... proportional, so that the resistance at other speeds is easily calculated. Columns A give the power of the speed to which the resistance is approximately proportional. Columns B give the mean resistance per square foot of the whole surface of a board of the lengths stated in the table. Columns C give the resistance in pounds of a square foot of surface at the distance sternward from the cutwater stated in the heading.