A Treatise on Hydraulics

Front Cover
J. Wiley & sons, 1889 - Hydraulics - 381 pages
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Contents

Numerical Computations
13
Hydrostatics
14
Head and Pressure
15
Heads and Pressures
17
Normal Pressure
18
Pressure in a given Direction
20
Centre of Pressure on Rectangles
22
General Rule for Centre of Pressure
24
Pressures on Opposite Sides of a Plane
27
Masonry Dams
28
Loss of Weight in Water
30
Depth of Flotation
31
Stability of Flotation
33
Theoretical Hydraulics
36
Velocity of Flow from Orifices
37
Orifices whose Plane is Horizontal
40
Rectangular Vertical Orifices
42
Triangular Vertical Orifices
44
Circular Vertical Orifices
45
Influence of Velocity of Approach
46
Flow under Pressure
49
Pressure Head and Velocity Head
52
Time of Emptying a Vessel
56
Flow from a revolving vessel
58
The Path of a Jet
63
The Energy of a Jet
64
The Impulse and Reaction of a Jet
66
Absolute and Relative Velocities
68
Flow through Orifices
71
The Coefficient of Contraction
73
The Coefficient of Velocity
74
The Coefficient of Discharge
76
Vertical Circular Orifices
79
Coefficients for Square Vertical Orifices
81
Vertical Square Orifices
82
Vertical Rectangular Orifices
83
The Miner s Inch
84
Submerged Orifices
86
Coefficients for Submerged Orifices
87
Suppression of the Contraction
88
Orifices with Rounded Edges
89
Measurement of Water by Orifices
90
The Energy of the Discharge
92
Discharge under a Variable Head
94
Emptying and Filling a Canal Lock
97
Flow over Weirs
100
The Hook Gauge
102
Formulas for the Discharge
104
The Velocity of Approach
106
Coefficients for Contracted Weirs
110
Weirs with End Contractions
111
Weirs without End Contractions
112
Coefficients for Suppressed Weirs
113
Francis Formulas
114
Submerged Weirs
116
Rounded and Wide Crests
119
Corrections for Wide Crests
120
Waste Weirs and Dams
121
The Surface Curve
124
Triangular Weirs
126
Flow through Tubes
128
Conical Converging Tubes 13
130
Coefficients for Conical Tubes
131
Nozzles
132
Vertical Heights of Jets from Nozzles
133
Diverging and Compound Tubes
137
Inward Projecting Tubes
141
Effective Head and Lost Head
142
Losses in the Standard Tube
145
Loss due to Enlargement of Section
148
Loss due to Contraction of Section
151
Piezometers
153
The Venturi Water Meter 158
158
Short Pipes
179
Long Pipes
181
Relative Discharging Capacities
182
A Compound Pipe
184
Piezometer Measurements
186
The Hydraulic Gradient
189
A Pipe with Nozzle
193
Houseservice Pipes
196
A Water Main
198
A Main with Branches
201
Pumping through Pipes
203
Leather and Rubber Hose
207
Lampes Formula
208
Very Small Pipes
210
Flow in Conduits and Canals
212
Formula for Mean Velocity
215
Circular Conduits full or half full
218
Circular Conduits partly full
221
Crosssections in Circular Conduits
222
Open Rectangular Conduits
224
Trapezoidal Sections
227
Horseshoe Conduits
231
Lampes Formula
232
Kutters Formula
233
Sewers
235
Coefficients for Sewers
238
Ditches and Canals
239
Losses of Head
242
The Energy of the Flow
244
Flow in Rivers
247
Velocities in a Crosssection
249
10S The Transporting Capacity of Currents
251
Iog The Current Meter
253
no Floats
256
in Other Current Indicators
259
Gauging the Flow
260
Gauging by Surface Velocities
262
Gauging by Subsurface Velocities
264
Comparison of Methods
266
Variations in Velocity and Discharge
268
Nonuniform Flow
270
The Surface Curve
273
Backwater
277
Values of the Backwater Function
280
Measurement of Water Power
283
Measurement of the Water
285
Measurement of the Head 288
288
Determination of Effective Power
290
The Friction Brake or Power Dynamometer
292
Test of a Small Motor
295
Test of a 6inch Eureka Turbine
296
Results of Test of a 6inch Turbine
297
The Lowell and Holyoke Tests
298
Test of an 80inch Boyden Turbine
300
Water Power of Rivers and of the Tides
302
Dynamic Pressure of Flowing Water
304
Definitions and Principles
305
Experiments on Impulse and Reaction
307
Surfaces at Rest
311
Curved Pipes and Channels
315
Immersed Bodies
317
Moving Vanes
319
Work derived from Moving Vanes
323
Revolving Vanes
326
Work derived from Revolving Vanes
329
Revolving Tubes
332
Hydraulic Motors
335
Art 13S Conditions of high efficiency 139 Overshot Wheels
339
Breast Wheels
341
Undershot Wheels
343
Horizontal Impulse Wheels
347
Reaction Wheels
351
Flow through Turbine Wheels
355

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Page 288 - ... Motor. The total available head H between the surface of the water in the reservoir or head-race and that in the lower pool or tail-race, is determined by running a line of levels from one to the other. Permanent bench-marks being established, gauges can then be set in the head-race and tail-race, and graduated so that their zero points will be at some datum below the tailrace level. During the test of a wheel^ each gauge is read by an observer at stated intervals; and the difference of the readings...
Page 293 - It is seen that this method is independent of the radius of the pulley, which may be of any convenient size. For a small motor, the brake may be clamped directly upon the shaft; but for a large one a pulley of considerable size is needed, and a special arrangement of levers is used, instead of a cord.
Page 292 - ... by two bolts. By turning the nuts on these bolts while the pulley is revolving, the friction can be increased at pleasure, even to the extent of stopping the motion; around these bolts, between the blocks, are two spiral springs (not shown in the diagram) which press the blocks outward when the nuts are loosened. To one of these blocks is attached a cord, which runs horizontally to a small movable pulley over which it passes, and supports a scale pan in which weights are placed. This cord runs...
Page 287 - If it be very small, it may 110 be caught in pails and directly weighed. If large in quantity, the gates which admit water to the wheel may be closed, and the leakage being then led into the tailrace, it may be there measured by a weir, or by .allowing it to collect in a tank. The leakage from a vertical penstock whose cross-section is known, may be ascertained by filling it with water, the -wheel being still, and then observing the fall of the water level at regular intervals of time.
Page 286 - ... flow in, the time between the beginning and end of the experiment being determined by a stop-watch, duly tested and rated. This time must not be short, in order that the slight errors in reading the watch may not affect the result. The gauge is read at the close of the test after the surface of the water becomes quiet, and the difference of the gauge-readings gives the depth which has flowed in during the observed time. The depth multiplied by the area of the cross-section gives the volume, and...
Page 25 - ... is the sum of the products obtained by multiplying each element of the area dA by the square of its distance from the axis.
Page 293 - ... .shaft is disconnected from the machinery which it usually runs, and is allowed to revolve, transforming all its work into heat by the friction between the revolving pulley and the brake, which is kept stationary by tightening the nuts and at the same time placing sufficient weight in the scale-pan to hold the pointer at the fixed mark. Let n be the number of revolutions per second, as determined by a counter attached to the shaft...
Page 288 - H is then directly read by noting the point of the graduation which coincides with the water surface in the tube. This device requires but one observer, while the former requires two; but it is usually not the cheapest arrangement, unless a large number of observations are to be taken. From this total head...

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