A Treatise on Physical Optics

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Deighton, Bell, 1892 - Fysics - 411 pages
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Contents

Elliptically and circularly polarized light
11
The Principle of Huygens
13
Law of the reflection of light
14
Law of the refraction of light
15
CHAPTER II
17
Fresnels mirrora
20
do do biplate
21
Fresnels experiment with three mirrors
22
Displacement of fringes by the interposition of a plate
23
Abnormal displacement of the central band Airys explanation
24
Lloyds experiment
25
Examples
26
Calculation of the intensity of light reflected and refracted by 8 thin
29
B O 6
33
Proof of Stokes hypothesis
38
AM PAGE 427 Lord Rayleighs theory 372
43
Stokes theorem for the displacement produced by an element of
45
Expression for the intensity when the aperture is of any form
51
Resolving power of optical instruments
63
A fine grating produces brood bands Overlapping of spectra
70
Resolution of double stars
77
DIFFRACTION CONTINUED
80
Intensity at the centre of the aperture or disc Poissons theorem
86
On the BessePs function Tn+ll where n is zero or any positive
93
Diffraction by a narrow obstacle
100
Positive and negative nniaxal crystals Principal indices of refrac
109
Principal indices of refraction for nragonite and topaz
110
Transparent media when subjected to stress exhibit double refraction
111
CHAPTER VII
112
Discussion of the hypothesis that the vibrations of polarized light are perpendicular to the plane of polarization
113
Discussion of the second and third hypotheses
115
The optic axes are perpendicular to the circular sections of the ellipsoid of elasticity
116
107108 Values of the two velocities in terms of the angles which the normal to the wavefront makes with the optic axes
117
Determination of the equation of Fresnels wavesurface
118
Traces of the wavesurface on the coordinate planes
119
Singular points Ray axes
120
Geometrical construction determining the direction of vibration in a plane wave
121
Equations of the tangent and normal cones at the singular points
122
Equation of the cone whose vertex is the origin and whose gene rators pass through the circle of contact of the tangent plane at the extremity of an o...
123
Uniaxal crystals Proof of Huygens construction
124
Discovery of conical refraction by Sir W Hamilton
125
Experiments of Lloyd proving that both kinds of conical refraction exist
126
On the methods of producing polarized light
127
125126 Theory and construction of Nicols prism
128
Polarization by a plate of tourmaline
129
Polarization by a pile of plates ISO Examples
130
tion of the formation of coloured rings
137
Rings produced when the plate is cut parallel to the axis
143
Kings produced by a plate of biaxal crystal whose axes form
149
ART PAGE 156 Expression for the intensity when a plate of quartz is cut perpen
156
CHAPTER IX
157
Description of the rings and brushes
164
Discussion of the results when the Nicola are crossed
167
do do when the planes of polarization and ana lysation are parallel 109
169
Expression for the intensity when the incident light is circularly polarized
170
Discussion of the results
172
Two plates superposed one of which is righthanded and the other lefthanded
173
1G3 Discussion of the results Airys spirals
174
CHAPTER X
176
Verification of Brewsters law by Sir J Conroy
177
Fresnels theory
178
Values of the intensities
179
Total reflection is accompanied by a change of phase
180
The refracted wave is a superficial wave
181
Reflection and refraction of light polarized perpendicularly to the plane of incidence
182
Proof of Brewsters law
183
Experimental verification of the change of phase which accom panies total reflection Fresnels rhomb
184
Theories of Neumann and MacCullagh
185
Objections to these theories
187
Dynamical theories of light may be divided into three classes
189
The internal stresses
190
The equations of motion of an elastic medium The stresses are completely specified by six quantities
191
Media which possess gyrostatic momentum
192
tional waves
195
190191 Criticisms on Greens Theory
197
CHAPTER XII
198
Reflection and refraction Light polarized in the plane of in cidence
199
Change of phase
201
Light polarized perpendicularly to the plane of incidence 1ressural or surface waves
203
Greens fornmlEB show that too much light is reflected at the polarizing angle
206
Change of phase
207
Proof that the theories of Neumann and MacCullagh lead to two polarizing angles
209
Theory of Newtons rings when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle
210
201202 Distinction between light polarized in and light polarized perpendicularly to the plane of incidence
211
Intensity of the transmitted light
212
Black spot at the centre
213
Intensity of light reflected from a pile of plates
214
Intensity of light reflected and refracted by a single plate
215
Quasigeometrical construction for the intensities of the reflected and transmitted lights
217
Finely divided substances exhibit colour or are white
218
Discussion of the tables
219
Perfectly transparent plates
221
CHAPTER XIII
223
Propagation of an arbitrary disturbance
224
Poissons solution of the equation 0 av3
225
Stokes application of the preceding results
232
Statement of Stokes law
238
Simple source of light
244
ART PAGE
246
Bnnsen and Kirchhoffs discovery that every substance when incan descent produces its own particular spectrum
285
The infrared and ultraviolet waves
286
The ultraviolet waves are noted for their chemical effects
287
Spectrum analysis enables the presence of elements to be detected in the sun and fixed stars
288
Eirchhofls laws of absorption
289
Spectrum analysis enables the relative motions of the sun and fixed stars to be determined in cases where astronomical methods fail
290
Dopplers principle
291
SELECTIVE ABSORPTION
292
COLOURS OF NATURAL BODIES
294
DICHROMATISM
295
ANOMALOUS DISPERSION
296
ABT PAGE 314 SELECTIVE BEFLECTION
298
Subsequently studied by Christiansen
299
Selective reflection differs from metallic reflection since the former produces strong chromatic effects
300
Kundts experiments
301
Stokes experiments on quinine
302
Fluorescence is produced by a number of other substances besides quinine
303
Dynamical illustration of a medium which produces fluorescence
304
CALORESCENCB
305
PHOSPHORESCENCE
306
CHAPTER XVII
308
Small oscillations of a sphere attached to a spring which is vibrating under the influence of waves of sound
309
338339 Discussion of the results and their application to phosphor escence
310
340341 Application to absorption
311
The experiments of Kumlt show that anomalous dispersion is pro duced by most of the aniline dyes 297
312
343344 The equations of motion of the molecule and their integration
313
345346 Discussion of the critical cases of vibration
315
Expression for the amplitude of the outermost shell in terms of the forced and free periods
316
The equations of motion of the ether
317
Expression for the index of refraction
318
Application to anomalous dispersion
319
The theory explains the anomalous dispersion produced by fuchsine and permanganate of potash
320
ABI PAGE 354 Von Helmholtz theory of anomalous dispersion
321
The equations of motion of the ether and the matter
322
Integration of the equations of motion
323
Expression for the index of refraction
324
Application of the theory to anomalous dispersion
325
The theory may be extended so as to apply to a medium having several absorption bands
326
Values of the changes of phase
327
Colour of the reflected light depends upon its state of polarization
328
CHAPTER XVIII
329
The principal incidence and azimuth depend upon the medium in contact with a metallic reflector
330
Theories of metallic reflection
332
Expression for the quasirefracted wave
334
Expressions for the ratio of the amplitudes and the difference of the changes of phase
335
The constants K and a can be calculated from experiment
336
Jamins experiments on the intensity of the reflected light
337
Jamins experimental laws concerning the changes of phase
339
Kundts discovery that a relation exists between the velocity of light in many metals and their electrical conductivities
341
Eisenlohrs calculations For many metals the real part of i3 must be negative
342
Metallic reflection cannot be explained by the introduction of a viscous term
343
Discussion of the results to which this theory leads
344
388389 Criticisms on the theories relating to the mutual reaction of ether and matter
345
CHAPTER XIX
347
391393 Equations of the electromagnetic field
348
General equations of electric displacement for a doublyrefracting medium
349
Equations of magnetic induction
350
The disturbance which produces light is represented by the electric displacement
351
Kundts law 298
352
Magnitude and direction of the electromotive force
353
Summary of the results
354
Isotropic media
355
Maxwells concluding remarks on the theory
356
405406 Hopkinsons experiments
357
408409 Hertzs experiments
359
Experimental verification of Fresnels hypothesis with regard to the vibrations of polarized light
360
Intensity of light
361
These conditions reduce to four equations
362
Reflection and refraction at the surface of an isotropic medium and a uniaxal crystal
363
The polarizing angle for a uniaxal crystal cut perpendicularly to the axis
365
The intensities satisfy the same equations as those furnished by various other theories
368
MacCullaghs theorem
369
Polarizing angle in the case of a uniaxal crystal whose axis lies in the plane of incidence
371
Beflection at a twin plane Stokes experiments
372
Definition of s twin crystal 873
373
432434 Plane of incidence perpendicular to the plane of symmetry
375
435436 In this case the direction of polarization is reversed by reflection when the angle of incidence is small 877
379
CHAPTER XX
380
Faradays experiments 881
381
Glass when under the action of electrostatic force behaves like a negative uniaxal crystal
382
Resin behaves like a positive nniaxal crystal
383
Kerrs experiments on reflection from a magnet
384
Experiments upon from a magnetic pole
385
Experimental results in this case
386
Description of the arrangements employed
387
Experimental results 887
388
Halls experiments on nickel and cobalt
389
Eundts experiments on magnetized glass
390
Summary of results
391
Theory of magnetic action on light
393
Equations of motion
395
Propagation of light
396
Rotatory polarization 39fJ
399
The theory explains Faradays experiments 479 The boundary conditions
400
The electrostatic and the electrokinetic energy
404
Discussion of the results
406
Beflection and refraction when the magnetization is parallel to the reflector
408
Concluding remarks
411

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