A Treatise on Physical Optics

Front Cover
Deighton, Bell, 1892 - Fysics - 411 pages
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Contents

Composition of two waves polarized in the same plane
10
Elliptically and ciroularly polarized light
11
The Principle of Huygens
13
Law of the reflection of light
14
Law of the refraction of light
16
CHAPTER II
17
Frosnels mirrors
19
Production of interference fringes by a hi prism
20
do do biplato
21
Fresnels experiment with three mirrors
22
Displacement of fringes by the interposition of a plate
23
Abnormal displacement of the central band Airys explanation
24
Lloyds experiment
25
Examples
26
COLOURS OF THIN AND THICK PLATES ART PAOK 25 Description of the phenomenon of the Colours of Thin Plates
28
Calculation of the intensity of light reflected and refracted by n thin plate
29
Newtons Rings
31
Colours of Thick Plates
33
Stokes fundamental hypothesis
34
Coloured rings produced by a plane mirror 81
38
Colours of Mixed Plates
39
Examples
41
CHAPTER IV
42
Stokes theorem for the displacement produced by an element of a plane wave
45
Displacement produced by an element of a cylindrical wave
47
Diffraction through a slit
48
Conditions for the formation of shadows
50
Expression for the intensity when the aperture is of any form and the waves are plane or are eon verging to a focus
51
Rcctungular uporluro
52
Aperture an isosceles triangle
53
4G Elliptio aperture
56
4749 Talbots bands Stokes investigation 5G 6051 Comparison of the results furnished by theory and experiment
63
Resolving power of a telcsoopo whoso uporturo is rectangular Gl 64 do do when the aporturo is circular
64
Theory of gratings Spectra produced by a grating
65
A fine grating produces broad bands Overlapping of spectra
67
Reflection gratings
72
GOGl Miehelsons investigations Application of tho principle of inter ference to the measurement of the angular magnitudes of small sources of light
74
G2 Resolution of double stars
77
Examples
78
for the intensity when the problem is one of two dimensions
80
Diffraction by a circular aperture or disc
86
On the Bessels function where n is zero or any positive
93
Diffraction by a narrow obstacle
100
Positive and negative uniaxal orystols Principal indices of refrac
109
Principal indices of refraction for aragonite and topaz
110
Transparent media when subjected to stress exhibit double refraction
111
CHAPTER VII
112
Discussion of the second and third hypotheses
113
Equation determining the velocity of propagation in a biaxnl crystal
115
The optic axes are perpendicular to the circular sections of the ellipsoid of elasticity
116
107108 Values of the two velocities in terms of the angles which the normal to the wavefront makes with the optic axes
117
Determination of the equation of Fresnels wavesurface
118
Traces of the wavesurface on the coordinate planes
119
Singular points Ray axes
120
Geometrical construction determining the direction of vibration in a plane wave
121
Equations of the tangent and normal cones at the singular points
122
Equation of the cone whose vertex is the origin and whose gene rators pass through the circle of contact of the tangent plane at the extremity of an o...
123
Uniaxal crystals Proof of Huygens construction
125
Internal conical refraction
126
Criticisms on Fresnels theory
127
125126 Theory and construction of Nicols priBm
128
Polarization by a plate of tourmaline
129
Polarization by a pile of plates
130
tion of the formation of coloured rings
137
Rings produced when the plate is out parallel to the axis
143
Ilings produced by a plato of biaxal orystal whose axes form
149
ABT 1AUK 156 Expression for tho intensity when a plate of quartz is out perpen
156
Rotatory polarization discovered by Arago Biots laws Right
157
Discussion of the results when the Nicols arc crossed 107
158
Discussion of tho results wlion theso planes arc inclined at any angle 109
159
Expression for the intensity when the incident light is circularly
160
Description of the rings and brushes
164
polarized
170
Discussion of the results
172
Two plates superposed one of which is righthanded and the other lefthanded
173
Discussion of the results Aira spirals
174
CHAPTER X
176
Reflection of common light and polarized light
177
Fresuols theory
178
Values of the intensities
179
Total reflection is accompanied by a change of phase
180
The refracted wave is a superficial wave
181
Reflection and refraction of light polarized perpendicularly to the piano of incidence
182
190191 Criticisms on Greens Theory
197
CHAPTER XII
198
Inflection and refraction Light polarized in tho plane of in cidence
199
Change of phase
201
show that too much light is rcflcctod at the polarizing angle
206
Change of phase
207
Proof that the theories of Neumann and MaoCullagh lead to two polarizing angles
209
Theory of Newtons rings when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle
210
201202 Distinction lctwcon light polarized in and light polarized perpendicularly to tho piano of inoidenco
211
Intensity of the transmitted light
212
Black spot at tho centre
213
Intensity of light reflected from a pile of plates
214
Intonsity of light reflected and refracted by a single plate
215
Quasigeometrical construction for tho intensities of the roilccted and transmitted lights
217
Finely divided substances exhibit colour or are white
218
Discussion of the tables
219
CHAPTER XIII
223
Propagation of an arbitrary disturbance
224
Poissons solution of the equation nvV
225
AET PAGE
226
Stokes application of the preceding results
232
Statement of Stokes law
238
abt PAGE
246
General expressions for the displacements produced by a multiple
248
The potential energy reduces to nine terms when the medium is
254
Greens medium propagates lougitudinal waves in the same manner
256
Criticisms on Greens theory
263
According to this theory the vibrations of polarized light
271
When the medium is isotropio the expressions for the intensity
277
CHAPTER XVI
282
The colour of light depends upon the period
283
descent produces its own particular spectrum 28S 284 Spectrum analysis furnishes a means of detecting the presence or absence of a chemical elemen...
285
The infrared waves aro waves of dark heat
286
The ultraviolet waves are noted for their chemical effects
287
Spectrum analysis enables tho presence of elements to bo detected in the sun and fixed stars
288
Kirchhoffs laws of absorption
289
Spectrum analysis enables the relative motions of the sun and fixed stars to be determined in cases where astronomical methods fail
290
298299 Huggins investigations on the proper motions of tho stars
291
Selective absorption
292
Colours of natural bouies
294
Dichromatisu
295
Anomalous dispersion
296
ART PAGE
298
First observed by FoxTalbot and afterwards by Leroux
299
Dynamical illustration of a medium which produces fluorescence
304
The experiments of Kundt show that anomalous dispersion is pro duced by most of tho aniline dyes 297
312
Molecular theory of Lord Kelvin Sir W Thomson 812
313
Application to anomalous dispersion 819
319
AST TAUE
321
CHAPTER XVIII
329
Expressions for the ratio of the amplitudes and the difference
335
Kundts experiments
341
ART PAOB
347
Kundts law 298
352
Magnitude and direction of the electromotive force
353
Experimental verification of Fresnels hypothesis with regard
360
Tho polarizing angle for a uniaxal crystal out perpendicularly
366
Reflection at a twin plane Stokes experiments
372
ABT PAOI 427 Lord RayleighB theory 872
373
432434 Plane of incidence perpendicular to the plane of symmetry
375
43543G In this caso tho direction of polarization is rovcrscd hy reflection when the angle of incidenco is small
377
Motallio reflection
379
CHAPTER XX
380
Faradays experiments 881
381
Glass when under tho action of electrostatic force behaves liko a negative uniaxal crystal 882
382
Resin behaves like a positive uniaxal crystal
383
Kerrs experiments on reflection from a magnet
384
Description of tho appliancos employed 3H1 452 Experiments upon from a magnetio pole
385
Description of tho arrangements employed
387
Summary of the experimental results
388
Halls experiments on nickel and cobalt
389
4G7 Kundts experiments on magnetized glass
390
Summary of results 891
391
ART PAGE 472 Table of the values of Halls effect for different metals 892
393
Equations of motion 894
395
Propagation of light
396
Rotatory polarization
399
The boundary conditions
400
The electrostatio and the electrokinetic energy
401
The final boundary conditions
404
Discussion of the results
406
Reflection and refraction when the magnetization is parallel to the reflector
408
48G Concluding remarks
411

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